International Journal of Thermophysics

, Volume 35, Issue 3–4, pp 712–724 | Cite as

Measuring Temperature in Pipe Flow with Non-Homogeneous Temperature Distribution

  • P. Klason
  • G. J. Kok
  • N. Pelevic
  • M. Holmsten
  • S. Ljungblad
  • P. Lau


Accurate temperature measurements in flow lines are critical for many industrial processes. It is normally more a rule than an exception in such applications to obtain water flows with inhomogeneous temperature distributions. In this paper, a number of comparisons were performed between different 100 ohm platinum resistance thermometer (Pt-100) configurations and a new speed-of-sound-based temperature sensor used to measure the average temperature of water flows with inhomogeneous temperature distributions. The aim was to achieve measurement deviations lower than 1 K for the temperature measurement of water flows with inhomogeneous temperature distributions. By using a custom-built flow injector, a water flow with a hot-water layer on top of a cold-water layer was created. The temperature difference between the two layers was up to 32 K. This study shows that the deviations to the temperature reference for the average temperature of four Pt-100s, the multisensor consisting of nine Pt-100s, and the new speed-of-sound sensors are remarkably lower than the deviation for a single Pt-100 under the same conditions. The aim of reaching a deviation lower than 1 K was achieved with the speed-of-sound sensors, the configuration with four Pt-100s, and the multisensor. The promising results from the speed-of sound temperature sensors open the possibility for an integrated flow and temperature sensor. In addition, the immersion depth of a single Pt-100 was also investigated at three different water temperatures.


Fluid temperature Platinum resistance thermometer  Temperature measurement of pipe flow Ultrasonic temperature sensor 



This project is partially funded by the European Union within the EMRP project ENG-06 Metrology for Improved Power Plant Efficiency. The authors are grateful for financial support from Vinnova and also thankful for all kind help from the technical staff (Dan Badh, Krister Stolt, and Bengt Börjesson) at the national flow laboratory at SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.


  1. 1.
    P. Fahlén, Värmemätning i vätskesystem, R13:1992 (Byggforskningsrådet, Stockholm, 1992). [in Swedish]Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. Fahlén, Temperaturmätning i vätskeflöden, SP-AR 1987:30 (SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, 1987). [in Swedish]Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    P. Fahlén, Temperatur-och tryckgivare i rörbunda flöden, 1479b (STF Ingenjörsutbildning, Stockholm, 1987). [in Swedish]Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    S.J. Kolpatzik, A. Hilgenstock, H. Dietrich, B. Nath, Flow Meas. Instr. 9, 43 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    K. Ehinger, D. Flach, L. Gellrich, E. Horlebein, R. Huck, H. Ilgner, T. Kayser, H. Müller, H. Schädlich, A. Schüssler, U. Staab, Practices for Industrial Temperature Measurements (ABB Automation Products GmbH, Alzenau, Germany, 2008)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    F. Adunka, Wärmemessung (Vulkan-Verlag, Essen, 1984)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    K. Arkesten, J. Eliasson, C. Hammar, M. Gårdinger, L.-O. Ivarsson, J. Berglund, Värmemätare Tekniska bestämmelser, F:104 (Svensk Fjärrvärme, Stockholm, 2008). [in Swedish]Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Laurie, D. Magallon, J. Rempke, C. Wilkins, J. Pierre, C. Marquié, S. Eymery, R. Morice, Int. J. Thermophys. 31, 1417 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    K.N. Huang, C.F. Huang, Y.C. Li, M.S. Young, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 4022 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    W.-Y. Tsai, C.-F. Huang, T.-L. Liao, Sens. Actuators A 117, 88 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    P. Klason, G.J. Kok, M. Holmsten, A. Andersson, P. Lau, in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, vol. 8, part 2, ed. by C.W. Meyer, A.I.P. Conf, Proc. 1522, (Melville, NY, 2013), pp. 925–930Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. Lau, Measurement Uncertainty Analysis for a Clamp-On Ultrasonic Flowmeter. Arbetsrapport 2010:17 (SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, 2010)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    G.J. Kok, P. Klason, Report on the development of a temperature calibration method and equipment for an ultrasound based temperature method, EMRP ENG06 Report D3.4 (2012)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. Klason, G.J. Kok, A multi Pt-100 sensing device for temperature measurement in pipe flow, EMRP ENG06 Report D3.5 (2012)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    P. Klason, A. Andersson, M. Holmsten, P. Lau, G.J. Kok, Measuring temperature distributions in pipe flows, on the included CD in advanced mathematical and computational tools in metrology and testing IX, in Series on Advances in Mathematics for Applied Sciences, vol. 84, ed. by F. Pavese, M. Bär, J.-R. Filtz, A.B. Forbes, L. Pendrill, K. Shirono (World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore, 2012)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    EA Publication EA-4/02, Expression of the uncertainty of measurement in calibration (1999)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    IEC 60751, Ed. 2.0, Industrial platinum resistance thermometers and platinum temperature sensors, ISBN 2-8318-9849-8 (International Electrotechnical Commission, 2008)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    D. Halliday, R. Resnick, J. Walker, Fundamentals of Physics, 8th edn. (Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 2008), pp. 485–488Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    E.W. Lemmon, M.L. Huber, M.O. McLinden, NIST Standard Reference Database 23, NIST Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties (REFPROP): Version 9.1.
  20. 20.
    A. Andersson, Measurement Technology—Volume and Flow, SP-Info 2009:28 (SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, 2009)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    D.R. White, C.L. Jongenelen, Int. J. Thermophys. 31, 1685 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    The open source OpenFOAM CFD software package.
  23. 23.
    Z.-Q. Yao, H.-C. Shen, H. Gao, J. Hydrodyn. B 25, 131 (2013)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    L. Zou, L. Larsson, M. Orych, J. Hydrodyn. B 22, 438 (2010)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    W.A. Lane, C.B. Storlie, C.J. Montgomery, E.M. Ryan, Powder Technol. 253, 733 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Klason
    • 1
  • G. J. Kok
    • 2
  • N. Pelevic
    • 2
  • M. Holmsten
    • 1
  • S. Ljungblad
    • 1
  • P. Lau
    • 1
  1. 1.SP Technical Research Institute of SwedenBoråsSweden
  2. 2.VSLDelftThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations