Optical Photoacoustic Detection of Circulating Melanoma Cells In Vitro
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The purpose of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of a system for the detection of circulating melanoma cells based on the thermoelastic properties of melanoma. The method employs photoacoustic (PA) excitation coupled with an optical transducer capable of determining the presence of cells within the circulating system in vitro. The transducer is based on stress wave-induced changes of the optical reflectance of a glass–water interface, probed with a continuous laser beam that is incident at an angle close to the critical angle of total internal reflection. A frequency tripled Nd:YAG laser pumping an optical parametric oscillator was employed to provide 532nm and 620nm laser light with a pulse duration of 10ns. A custom-made flow chamber was used as an excitation and acoustic wave collection device. The targets were a human melanoma cell line HS 936 with an average diameter of about 15μm. Melanoma cells were suspended in 10mL of two types of media. The first one was Tyrode’s buffer in concentrations ranging from 10 to 50 cells per μL, and the second one included 106 healthy white blood cells per mL of Tyrode’s buffer. PA pressure waves were detected by an optical stress transducer. Detection trials resulted in a detection threshold of the order of one individual cell, indicating the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism. Results imply the potential to assay simple blood samples, from healthy and metastatic patients, to test the presence of cancerous melanoma providing an unprecedented method for screening metastatic disease.
KeywordsCancer Laser-induced ultrasound Melanoma cells Nd:YAG laser radiation Optoacoustics Photoacoustic effect
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