Do Fruit Nutrients Affect Subgrouping Patterns in Wild Spider Monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi)?
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One of the main costs of group living is feeding competition. Fission–fusion dynamics are thought to be a strategy to avoid overt competition for food resources. We tested whether food abundance and quality affected such dynamics in a species characterized by a high degree of fission–fusion dynamics. We collected data on 22 adult and subadult spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) living in a large community in the protected area of Otoch Ma’ax Yetel Kooh, Yucatan, Mexico. We recorded subgroup size and fission events as well as fruit abundance during 12 mo and conducted nutritional analyses on the fruit species that the study subjects consumed most. We found no effect of fruit abundance or nutritional quality of recently visited food patches on individual fission decisions, but the amount of protein in the food patches visited over the course of the day was a good predictor of subgroup size. While the absence of support for a relationship between fruit characteristics and fission decisions may be due to the short temporal scale of the analysis, our findings relating subgroup size to the amount of protein in the visited food patches over the course of the day may be explained by individual spider monkeys attempting to obtain sufficient protein intake from their fruit-based diet.
KeywordsAteles Feeding competition Fission–fusion dynamics Food abundance Nutrient quality
We thank Anthony R. Denice for his outstanding contribution in data collection; Augusto Canul, Eulogio Canul, Juan Canul, and Macedonio Canul for their valuable assistance during fieldwork; and tree climbers Octaviano “Tavo” Ciau Dzul and Benito Yam Cocom for their indispensable assistance during fruit sample collection. We are deeply grateful to Joanna M. Setchell, Annika Felton, and an anonymous reviewer for valuable comments on previous versions of the manuscript. We are grateful to Sandra Smith for her overall support and to Gabriel Ramos-Fernandez and Laura G. Vick for sharing the management of the long-term project. We are also indebted to Chester Zoo and The National Geographic Society for financially supporting the long-term project, the Primate Society of Great Britain for a research grant, and the Consejo Nacional por la Ciencia y la Tecnologia (CONACyT) for L. Busia’s PhD studentship (CVU no. 490429) and for equipment (no. I0101/152/2014 C-133/2014).
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