International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 32, Issue 4, pp 924–930 | Cite as

Extension of the Geographical Range of White-browed Titi Monkeys (Callicebus discolor) and Evidence for Sympatry with San Martin Titi Monkeys (Callicebus oenanthe)

  • Jan Vermeer
  • Julio C. Tello-Alvarado
  • Sergio Moreno-Moreno
  • Fernando Guerra-Vásquez


White-browed titi monkeys (Callicebus discolor) have one of the largest distribution ranges of all titi monkey species, occurring from central Peru to southern Colombia. During a long-term study on the distribution of titi monkeys and other primates in Peru, we conducted extensive surveys in the San Martin Department of northeastern Peru. We encountered Callicebus discolor at the left bank of the Huallaga River, where the species most probably lives in sympatry with endemic San Martin titi monkeys (Callicebus oenanthe). Our study reveals an important extension of its formerly known distribution range. Massive deforestation activities in the region make studies on the habitat preferences of both species difficult, as most titi monkeys are confined to the remaining small remnants of the original forest. Urgent conservation measures are necessary to preserve the last lowland forests of San Martin.


Callicebus discolor Callicebus oenanthe Distribution range San Martin Department 



This study is part of a long-term project for the conservation of Callicebus oenanthe, coordinated by the Peruvian NGO Proyecto Mono Tocón and initiated by Le Conservatoire pour la Protection des Primates of the primate park La Vallee des Singes of Romagne, France. We thank Dario Lorente Hollingworth, José Tito Villacis del Castillo, César Manuel Paredes Arévalo, Carlos Enrique Zabarburú Chicana, Julio Rengifo Chávez, Paulino Rafael Altamarino, and Antonio J. Bóveda-Penalba for companionship during the study. We thank Eckhard Heymann, Rob Wallace, and an anonymous reviewer for their comments on the manuscript. We also thank Cécile Callou and Jacques Cuisin for allowing us to study the collection of the Museum Nationale d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris, and René Dekker and Hein van Grouw for access to the collection of Naturalis in Leiden. We also thank the personnel of the Naturalis Library. Financial support for the study was provided by La Vallée des Singes, the Friends of Blackpool Zoo, Primate Conservation Inc., Apenheul Primate Park, Twycross Zoo, the Zoological Society of London, Eskilstuna Zoo, the Shaldon Wildlife Trust, Zodiac Zoos, and Bellewaerde Park. We thank DGFFS for authorization (Authorization 255-2009-AG-DGFFS-DGEFFS) to conduct this study. Our work would not have been possible without the help and hospitality of the Peruvian people, who were always friendly and happy to respond to our questions.


  1. Aquino, R., & Encarnacion, F. (1994). Primates of Peru. Primate Report, 40, 27–30.Google Scholar
  2. Aquino, R., Terrones, W., Cornejo, F., & Heymann, E. W. (2008). Geographic distribution and possible taxonomic distinction of Callicebus torquatus populations in Peruvian Amazonia. American Journal of Primatology, 70, 1181–1186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boveda-Penalba, A. J., Vermeer, J., Rodrigo, F., & Guerra-Vasquez, F. (2009). Preliminary report on the distribution of Callicebus oenanthe on the eastern feet of the Andes. International Journal of Primatology, 30, 467–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cabrera, A. (1900). Estudios sobre una colleción de monos americanos. Anales de Sociedad Espanola de Historia Natural, 9(29), 83–85.Google Scholar
  5. Defler, T. R. (2004). Primates of Colombia. Bogotá: Conservacion Internacional de Colombia.Google Scholar
  6. de Luycker, A. (2006). Preliminary report and conservation status of the Rio Mayo titi monkey, Callicebus oenanthe Thomas, 1924, in the Alto Mayo Valley, Northeastern Peru. Primate Conservation, 21, 33–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Elliot, D. G. (1913). A review of the primates 1. New York: American Museum of Natural History.Google Scholar
  8. Felton, A., Felton, A. M., Wallace, R. B., & Gómez, H. (2006). Identification, behavioural observations, and notes on the distribution of the Titi monkeys Callicebus modestus Lönnberg, 1939 and Callicebus olallae, Lönnberg 1939. Primate Conservation, 20, 41–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ferrari, S. F., Iwanaga, S., Messias, M. R., Ramos, E. M., Ramos, P. C. S., da Cruz Neto, E., et al. (2000). Titi monkeys (Callicebus spp., Atelidae: Platyrrhini) in the Brazilian State of Rondônia. Primates, 41, 229–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, I. (1851). Description des mammifères nouveaux ou imparfaitement connus de la collection du Muséum d’Histoire naturelle 3: Famille des Singes, Supplément. Archives du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, 5, 551–555. +plate 28.Google Scholar
  11. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, I., & Deville, E. (1848). Note sur huit espèces nouvelles de singes américains, faisant partie des collections de MM. De Castelnau et Emilie Deville. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences de Paris, 27, 498.Google Scholar
  12. Gray, J. E. (1870). Catalogue of monkeys, lemurs and fruit-eating bats in the collection of the British Museum (pp. 54–57).Google Scholar
  13. Hershkovitz, P. (1990). Titis, New World Monkeys of the genus Callicebus: a preliminary taxonomic review. Fieldiana Zoology, 55, 1–109.Google Scholar
  14. Jentink, F. A. (1892). Catalogue systématique des mammifères (singes, carnivores, ruminants, pachydermes, sirènes et cétacés). Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle des Pays Bas, 11, 52–53.Google Scholar
  15. Kinzey, W. G. (1997). New World Primates: Ecology, evolution and behavior (p. 215).Google Scholar
  16. Martinez, J., & Wallace, R. B. (2007). Further notes on the distribution of endemic Bolivian Titi Monkeys, Callicebus modestus and Callicebus olallae. Neotropical Primates, 14, 47–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rowe, N., & Martinez, W. (2003). Callicebus sightings in Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador. Neotropical Primates, 11, 32–35.Google Scholar
  18. Schlegel, H. (1876). Les singes, Simia. Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Pays-Bas, 12, 230–241.Google Scholar
  19. Thomas, O. (1924). New Callicebus, Conepatus, and Oecomys from Peru. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 9(14), 286–288.Google Scholar
  20. van Roosmalen, G. M., van Roosmalen, T., & Mittermeier, R. A. (2002). A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates, 10(Supplement), 1–52.Google Scholar
  21. von Spix, J. B. (1823). Simiarum et vespertiliarum Brasilienses species novea (pp. 18–23).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jan Vermeer
    • 1
    • 2
  • Julio C. Tello-Alvarado
    • 2
    • 3
  • Sergio Moreno-Moreno
    • 2
  • Fernando Guerra-Vásquez
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Le Conservatoire pour la Protection des PrimatesRomagneFrance
  2. 2.Proyecto Mono TocónMoyobambaPeru
  3. 3.Facultad de EcologíaUniversidad Nacional de San MartínTarapotoPeru

Personalised recommendations