Advertisement

International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp 24–45 | Cite as

Demographic Structure of Zanzibar Red Colobus Populations in Unprotected Coral Rag and Mangrove Forests

  • Katarzyna Nowak
  • Phyllis C. Lee
Article

Asbtract

More than half of the global population of the endangered Zanzibar red colobus (Procolobus kirkii) live outside the single major protected area on Zanzibar Island. We present data on the 2 largest, discrete subpopulations living in unprotected areas at extremes of the species’ range. We compare the size and structure of 11 groups, specifically 6 core groups inhabiting interior, mature forest with 5 peripheral groups living in disturbed/degraded edge habitats. Groups living in southern mangrove forest—a species-poor but more productive and less seasonal habitat than coral rag thicket—had larger group sizes and more heterogeneous age structure, were more stable, and had higher rates of infant survival than did groups in northern coral rag. Group size ranged from 5.5 ± 1.6 SD (the smallest reported for this species) in edge coral rag to 31.2 + 1.9 SD in core mangroves. Edge groups were significantly smaller than core groups in northern coral rag while in the south, where all groups had access to mangroves, we found no significant difference in mean group size between edge and core areas. Groups using mangroves exhibited frequent social play, an indicator of habitat quality, and had a higher ratio of births per female per year. We suggest that mangroves are an important refuge and possibly source habitat for Zanzibar red colobus. We urge the conservation of mangrove and remaining coral rag in the unprotected areas described here in an effort to sustain this endemic species throughout its range.

Keywords

Habitat fragmentation Local extinction risk Mangrove Procolobus Refuge 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the Department of Commercial Crops, Fruits and Forestry (DCCFF) in Zanzibar and its Director, Dr. Bakari Asseid, for support of and permission to conduct this study. For assistance in the field, we thank Aliy Abdul Rahman, Duncan Gillespie, Kirstin Siex, Mtumwa Simai, Iss-haka Hussein Abdulla, and Mwinyi Khamis Mwinyi. We thank the editors Joanna Setchell and Oliver Schülke and 2 anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on our manuscript. Thank you to Joanna Nowak for help with the study site map. K. Nowak’s fieldwork was supported by the Wildlife Conservation Society, Leakey Foundation, Primate Conservation, Inc., American Society of Primatologists, and the Leakey Trust. The monitoring of the groups in this study has continued since 2005 as part of the WCS-Zanzibar Program.

References

  1. Baranga, D. (2004). Forest fragmentation and primates’ survival status in non-reserved forests of the ‘Kampala area’, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology, 42, 70–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berenstain, L. (1986). Responses of long-tailed macaques to drought and fire in Eastern Borneo: a preliminary report. Biotropica, 18, 257–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhagwat, S. A., Willis, K. J., Birks, H. J. B., Whittaker, R. J. (2008). Agroforestry: a refuge for tropical biodiversity? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 23, 261–267.Google Scholar
  4. Buckland, S. T., Anderson, D. R., Burnham, K. P., Laake, J. L., Borchers, D. L., & Thomas, L. (2001). Introduction to distance sampling: Estimating abundance of biological populations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Camperio Ciani, A., Palentini, L., & Finotto, E. (2001). Survival of a small translocated Procolobus kirkii population on Pemba Island. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation, 24, 15–18.Google Scholar
  6. Chapman, C. A., Speirs, M. L., Gillespie, T. R., Holland, T., & Austad, K. M. (2006). Life on the edge: gastrointestinal parasites from the forest edge and interior primate groups. American Journal of Primatology, 68, 397–409.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Chapman, C. A., Naughton-Treves, L., Lawes, M. J., Wasserman, M. D., & Gillespie, T. R. (2007). Population declines of colobus in Western Uganda and conservation value of forest fragments. International Journal of Primatology, 28, 513–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Daniel, W. W. (1990). Applied nonparametric statistics (2nd ed.). Boston: PWS-Kent.Google Scholar
  9. Dunbar, R. I. M. (1988). Primate social systems. London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
  10. Dunbar, R. I. M. (1992). Time: a hidden constraint on the behavioral ecology of baboons. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 31, 35–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fashing, P. J., & Cords, M. (2000). Diurnal primate densities and biomass in the Kakamega Forest: an evaluation of census methods and a comparison with other forests. American Journal of Primatology, 50, 139–152.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Field, A. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS (2nd ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  13. Galat-Luong, A., & Galat, G. (2005). Conservation and survival adaptations of Temminck’s red colobus (Procolobus badius temminckii) in Senegal. International Journal of Primatology, 26, 585–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Larsen, D. R. (1997). Natural resource biometrics. URL: http://oak.snr.missouri.edu/nr3110/.
  15. Lee, P. C. (1984). Ecological constraints on the social development of vervet monkeys. Behaviour, 91, 245–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lee, P. C. (1999). Comparative ecology of post-natal growth and weaning among haplorhine primates. In P. C. Lee (Ed.), Comparative primate socioecology (pp. 111–139). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lehman, S. M., Rajaonson, A., & Day, S. (2006). Edge effects and their influence on lemur density and distribution in Southeast Madagascar. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 129, 232–241.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Li, Z., & Rogers, E. (2004). Habitat quality and activity budgets of white-headed langurs in Fusui, China. International Journal of Primatology, 25, 41–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Marshall, A. R. (2007). Disturbance in the Udzungwas: Responses of monkeys and trees to forest degradation. Ph.D. thesis, University of York, York, UK.Google Scholar
  20. Marshall, A. R., Topp-Jorgensen, J. E., Brink, H., & Fanning, E. (2005). Monkey abundance and social structure in two high-elevation forest reserves in the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania. International Journal of Primatology, 26, 127–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Masoud, T. S., Finnie, D., Omar, A. B., Basha, A. U., & Wild, R. G. (2003). Zanzibar red colobus conservation strategy — a long term strategy for the survival of the Zanzibar red colobus. Forestry Technical Paper 137. Zanzibar: Department of Commercial Crops, Fruits, and Forestry.Google Scholar
  22. Mbora, D. N. M., & Meikle, D. B. (2004). The value of unprotected habitat in conserving the critically endangered Tana River red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus). Biological Conservation, 120, 91–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mease, L. (2009). Survey of anthropogenic vegetation changes on Uzi and Vundwe Islands: A study on deforestation and its implications for people and wildlife. Unpublished report for School for International Training. ISP Collection, Paper 758. URL: http://digitalcollections.sit.edu/isp_collection/758.
  24. Mturi, F. A. (1991). The feeding ecology and behavior of the red colobus monkey (Colobus badius kirkii). Ph.D. thesis, Dar es Salaam: University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.Google Scholar
  25. Nowak, K. (2007). Behavioral flexibility and demography of Procolobus kirkii across floristic and disturbance gradients. Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  26. Nowak, K. (2008). Frequent water drinking by Zanzibar red colobus (Procolobus kirkii) in a mangrove forest refuge. American Journal of Primatology, 70, 1081–1092.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Nowak, K., Perkin, A., & Jones, T. (2009). Update on habitat loss and conservation status of the endangered Zanzibar red colobus on Uzi and Vundwe Islands. Unpublished report for Department of Commercial Crops, Fruits and Forestry, Zanzibar. URL: http://www.primate.org/publications.htm.
  28. Pulliam, H. R. (1988). Sources, sinks and population regulation. The American Naturalist, 132, 652–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Quinten, M., Waltert, M., Syamsuri, F., & Hodges, K. (2009). Peat swamp forest supports high primate densities on Siberut Island, Sumatra, Indonesia. Oryx, 44, 147–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Siex, K. S. (1995). The Zanzibar red colobus monkey (Procolobus kirkii): Ecology, demography, and use of Cocos nucifera. Master’s thesis, University of Florida, Gainseville, FL.Google Scholar
  31. Siex, K. S. (2003). Effects of population compression on the demography, ecology, and behavior of the Zanzibar red colobus monkey (Procolobus kirkii). Ph.D. thesis, Duke University, Durham, NC.Google Scholar
  32. Siex, K. S., & Struhsaker, T. T. (1999). Ecology of the Zanzibar red colobus monkey: Demographic variability and habitat stability. International Journal of Primatology, 20, 163–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Silkiluwasha, F. (1981). The distribution and conservation status of the Zanzibar red colobus. African Journal of Ecology, 19, 187–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sommer, V., & Mendoza-Granados, D. (1995). Play as indicator of habitat quality: a field study of langur monkeys (Presbytis entellus). Ethology, 99, 177–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Struhsaker, T. T. (1975). The red colobus monkey. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  36. Struhsaker, T. T. (2000a). The effects of predation and habitat quality on the socioecology of African monkeys: Lessons from the islands of Bioko and Zanzibar. In P. F. Whitehead & C. J. Jolly (Eds.), Old world monkeys (pp. 393–430). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Struhsaker, T. T. (2000b). Variation in adult sex ratios of red colobus monkey social groups: Implications for interspecific comparisons. In P. M. Kappeler (Ed.), Primate males: Causes and consequences of variation in group composition (pp. 108–119). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Struhsaker, T. T. (2008). Demographic variability in monkeys: implications for theory and conservation. International Journal of Primatology, 29, 19–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Struhsaker, T. T., & Leland, L. (1980). Observations on two rare and endangered populations of red colobus monkeys in East Africa: Colobus badius gordonorum and Colobus badius kirkii. African Journal of Ecology, 18, 191–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Struhsaker, T. T., & Pope, T. R. (1991). Mating system and reproductive success: a comparison of two African forest monkeys (Colobus badius and Cercopithecus ascanius). Behaviour, 117, 182–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Struhsaker, T. T., & Siex, K. S. (1998). Translocation and introduction of the Zanzibar red colobus monkey: success and failure with an endangered island endemic. Oryx, 32, 277–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Struhsaker, T. T., Marshall, A. R., Detwiler, K. M., Siex, K., Ehardt, C. L., Lisbjerg, D. D., et al. (2004). Demographic variation among the Udzungwa Red colobus (Procolobus gordonorum) in relation to gross ecological and sociological Parameters. International Journal of Primatology, 25, 615–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Van Horne, B. (1983). Density as misleading indicator of habitat quality. Journal of Wildlife Management, 47, 893–901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Whitesides, G. H., Oates, J. F., Green, S. M., & Kluberdanz, R. P. (1988). Estimating primate densities from transects in a West African rain forest: a comparison of techniques. The Journal of Animal Ecology, 57, 345–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Williams, A. J., & Basha, A. U. (1996). A PRA carried out in Kiwengwa. Zanzibar: Conservation and Village Forestry Sections, Commission for Natural Resources, Zanzibar. Unpublished report.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyPrinceton UniversityPrincetonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychology, Behavior and Evolution Research GroupUniversity of StirlingStirlingUK

Personalised recommendations