International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 29, Issue 5, pp 1203–1217 | Cite as

Effects of a Typhoon on Foraging Behavior and Foraging Success of Macaca fuscata on Kinkazan Island, Northern Japan

  • Yamato Tsuji
  • Seiki Takatsuki


We studied the effects of typhoon damage on the food habits, time budgets, and moving distances of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) on Kinkazan Island, northern Japan. Before the typhoon (pre-typhoon phase), the macaques fed on various food items, including fruit in trees (Swida macrophylla) and nuts (Torreya nucifera) on the ground. After the typhoon passed (post-typhoon phase), the macaques fed intensively on the seeds of Perilla frutescens (a forb) and the nuts of Quercus serrata on the ground. One may attribute the changes to decreased food availability or foraging efficiency of fruits and nuts on the ground, due to their concealment by leaf litter and mud and their consumption by other animals, such as sika deer (Cervus nippon) and field mice (Apodemus argenteus). In the post-typhoon phase, the macaques fed more quickly on seeds of Perilla frutescens, spent less time traveling, and moved over shorter distances. The differences may be due to changes in the distribution of staple foods between the 2 phases. We also evaluated the energy intake and energy balance of the macaques in both phases, based on observations of foraging and nutritional analyses of the food items. There is no significant difference in either parameter between the 2 phases. The changes in food habits and movement behavior may have compensated for the reduced food availability or foraging efficiency caused by the typhoon. Both behavioral changes and nutritional issues are important when investigating the effects of storms on animal ecology.


foraging success Japanese macaque Kinkazan island ranging behavior typhoon 



We thank Drs. N. Nakagawa and M. Minami, and N. Ohnishi, for constructive comments on the manuscript; Dr. K. Izawa for aiding our fieldwork, N. Kazahari, H. Kazahari, and K. Sato for their assistance in food sample collection; Drs. Z. Jiang, M. Kitahara, and Y. Yoshida for their advice during nutritional analyses; and Drs. T. Sasaki and K. Mizota for their help in identifying consumed animals. The Cooperative Research Fund of the Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University provided financial support for the study.


  1. Behie, A. M., & Pavelka, M. S. M. (2005). The short-term effects of a hurricane on the diet and activity of black howlers (Alouatta pigra) in Monkey River, Belize. Folia Primatologica, 76, 1–9. doi: 10.1159/000082450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chapman, C. A., Wrangham, R. W., & Chapman, L. J. (1995). Ecological constraints on group size— an analysis of spider monkey and chimpanzee subgroups. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 36, 59–70. doi: 10.1007/BF00175729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Coelho, A. M., Bramblett, C. A., Quick, L. B., & Bramblett, S. S. (1976). Resource availability and population density in primates: A socio-bioenergetic analysis of the energy budgets of Guatemalan howler and spider monkeys. Primates, 17, 63–80. doi: 10.1007/BF02381567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dasilva, G. L. (1992). The western black and white colobus as a low energy strategist— activity budgets, energy expenditure and energy intake. Journal of Animal Ecology, 61, 79–91. doi: 10.2307/5511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gannon, M. R., & Willig, M. R. (1994). The effects of hurricane Hugo on bats of the Luquillo Experimental Forest of Puerto Rico. Biotropica, 26, 320–331. doi: 10.2307/2388854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Grant, G. S., Craig, P., & Trail, P. (1997). Cyclone-induced shift in foraging behavior in flying foxes in American Samoa. Biotropica, 29, 224–228. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7429.1997.tb00027.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Iwamoto, T. (1978). Food availability as a limiting factor on population density of the Japanese monkey and gelada baboon. In D. J. Chivers, & J. Herbert (Eds.), Recent Advances in Primatology. Academic Press, London, pp. 287–303.Google Scholar
  8. Izawa, K. (1999). Comparison of six troops of Japanese macaques on Kinkazan Island. Japanese Macaques in Miyagi Prefecture, 10, 1–11.Google Scholar
  9. Labisky, R. F., Miller, K. E., & Hartless, C. S. (1999). Effect of hurricane Andrew on survival and movements of white-tailed deer in the Everglades. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 63, 872–879. doi: 10.2307/3802800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mabry, C. M., Hamburg, S. P., Lin, T., Horng, F., King, H., & Hsia, Y. (1998). Typhoon disturbance and stand-level damage patterns at a subtropical forest in Taiwan. Biotropica, 30, 238–250. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7429.1998.tb00058.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Majolo, B., & Ventura, R. (2004). Apparent feeding association between Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) and sika deer (Cervus nippon) living on Yakushima Island, Japan. Ethology Ecology and Evolution, 16, 33–40.Google Scholar
  12. Martin, P., & Bateson, P. (1990). Measuring Behavior. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  13. Maynard, L. A., Loosli, J. K., Hinttz, H. F., & Warner, R. G. (1979). Animal Nutrition. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  14. McCoid, M. J. (1996). Effect of typhoons on the lizard community of a shelf atoll. Atoll Research Bulletin, 439, 1–5.Google Scholar
  15. McConkey, K. R., Drake, D. R., Franklin, J., & Tonga, F. (2004). Effects of cyclone Waka on flying foxes (Pteropus tonganus) in the Vava’u Island of Tonga. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 20, 555–561. doi: 10.1017/S0266467404001804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Morimitsu, Y. (1997). Establishment of Diagnostic Methods of Pregnancy and Those Applications for Evaluation of Habitats in the Japanese Monkey (Macaca fuscata). Tokyo: Ph. D. thesis, Nippon Veterinary and Animal Science University, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  17. Nagy, K. A., & Milton, K. (1979). Energy metabolism and food consumption by wild howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata). Ecology, 60, 475–480. doi: 10.2307/1936066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nakagawa, N. (1989). Bioenergetics of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) on Kinkazan Island during winter. Primates, 30, 441–460. doi: 10.1007/BF02380873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nakagawa, N. (1990). Choice of food patches by Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata). Primates, 31, 17–29. doi: 10.1007/BF02382530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nakagawa, N. (1997). Determinants of the dramatic seasonal changes in the intake of energy and protein by Japanese monkeys in a cool temperate forest. American Journal of Primatology, 41, 267–288. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2345(1997)41:4<267::AID-AJP1>3.0.CO;2-V.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nakayama, Y., Matsuoka, S., & Watanuki, Y. (1999). Feeding rates and energy deficits of juvenile and adult Japanese monkeys in a cool temperate area with snow coverage. Ecological Research, 14, 291–301. doi: 10.1046/j.1440-1703.1999.143306.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nunes, A. (1995). Foraging and ranging patterns in white-bellied spider monkeys. Folia Primatologica, 65, 85–99.Google Scholar
  23. Padmalal, U., & Takatsuki, S. (1994). Age-sex differences in the diets of Sika deer on Kinkazan Island, northern Japan. Ecological Research, 9, 251–256. doi: 10.1007/BF02348411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pavelka, M. S. M., & Behie, A. M. (2005). The effect of hurricane Iris on the food supply of black howlers (Alouatta pigra) in southern Belize. Biotropica, 37, 102–108.Google Scholar
  25. Pavelka, M. S. M., Brusselers, O. T., Nowak, D., & Behie, A. M. (2003). Population reduction and social disorganization in Alouatta pigra following a hurricane. International Journal of Primatology, 24, 1037–1055. doi: 10.1023/A:1026276228635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ratsimbazafy, J. H., Ramarosandratana, H. V., & Zaonarivelo, R. J. (2002). How do black—and—white ruffed lemurs still survive in a highly disturbed habitat? Lemur News, 7, 7–10.Google Scholar
  27. Seki, S., & Sato, T. (2002). The effect of a typhoon on the flocking and foraging behavior of tits. Ornithological Science, 1, 53–61. doi: 10.2326/osj.1.53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Spain, A. V., & Heinsohn, G. E. (1973). Cyclone associated feeding changes in the dugong (Mammalia: Sirenia). Mammalia, 37, 678–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Takahashi, H. (2002). Female reproductive parameters and fruit availability: factors determining onset of estrus in Japanese macaques. American Journal of Primatology, 57, 141–153. doi: 10.1002/ajp.10041.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tsuji, Y. (2007). Effects of Yearly Differences in Nut Fruiting on Population Parameters of Wild Japanese Macaques Through Intra-troop Competition. Tokyo: Ph. D. thesis, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  31. Tsuji, Y., Kazahari, N., Kitahara, M., & Takatsuki, S. (2008). A more detailed seasonal division of nutritional condition of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) on Kinkazan Island, northern Japan. Primates, 49, 157–1160. doi: 10.1007/s10329-007-0070-1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tsuji, Y., Shimoda-Ishiguro, M., Ohnishi, N., & Takatsuki, S. (2007). A friend in need is a friend indeed: Feeding association between Japanese macaques and sika deer. Acta Theriologica, 52, 427–434.Google Scholar
  33. Tsuji, Y., & Takatsuki, S. (2004). Food habits and home range use of Japanese macaques on an island inhabited by deer. Ecological Research, 19, 381–388. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1703.2004.00648.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Widmer, O., Saïd, S., Miroir, J., Duncan, P., Gaillard, J., & Klein, F. (2004). The effects of hurricane Lothar on habitat use of roe deer. Forest Ecology and Management, 195, 237–242. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2004.02.021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yoshii, Y., & Yoshioka, K. (1949). Plant communities on Kinkazan Island. Ecological Review, 12, 84–105 Sendai.Google Scholar
  36. Yotsumoto, N. (1976). The daily activity rhythm in a troop of wild Japanese monkey. Primates, 17, 183–204. doi: 10.1007/BF02382850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Agriculture and Life SciencesUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Primate Research InstituteKyoto UniversityAichiJapan
  3. 3.University MuseumUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan
  4. 4.School of Veterinary MedicineAzabu UniversityKanagawaJapan

Personalised recommendations