International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 49–64 | Cite as

History and Present Scope of Field Studies on Macaca fuscata yakui at Yakushima Island, Japan



Field studies on Japanese macaques on Yakushima Island started in the mid-1970s, >25 yr after the emergence of Japanese primatology, in response to criticism of methods using provisioning and the desire to find the socioecological factors influencing the social life of macaques in natural habitats. We habituated macaques without provisioning mainly in the coastal warm-temperate forest and found that they lived in small troops with a high socionomic sex ratio. Observations of several troop fissions and troop takeovers by nontroop males suggest that Yakushima macaques have a different social organization from that of Japanese macaques in other habitats. For example, youngest ascendancy as the dominance relationhip among sisters, which usually occurs in provisioned troops, was absent in Yakushima macaques. We compared their ecological and social features with those of Japanese macaques at Kinkazan (cool-temperate forests) and found that abundance of high-quality foods may cause stronger intra- and intertroop competition at Yakushima. Female Yakushima macaques may more positively solicit nontroop males to associate with them during the mating season. Such a tendency may promote frequent male movement between troops and frequent troop fissions. Though ecological factors form social features of Japanese macaques, some features such as male association and movements between troops are not accounted for via socioecology. Recent field studies have focused on macaques living at higher altitudes in Yakushima and on individual survival strategies by taking diverse viewpoints and using new technologies. DNA analysis of fecal samples shows low genetic diversity and suggests the macaques’ recent expansion from lowland to highland forests in Yakushima. The population censuses conducted annually indicate that the higher-altitude macaques have a larger home range but a similar group size versus their counterparts at low elevations. The unsolved issues in socioecology will pose a challenge to the younger generation of primatologists. Conservation of macaques and their habitat is one of our major activities at Yakushima. The level of protection has gradually increased in the National Park at Yakushima and, via our various conservation efforts, its most important area was designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1993. However, large-scale logging in the 1960s and 1970s caused the loss of macaque habitats and led to increased crop damage by them in the 1980s. We have proposed effective methods to protect cultivated fields from macaques as well as several plans for sustainable use of forests, such as ecotourism and a fieldwork course for university students. Local residents and researchers have created several nongovernment organizations (NGOs) to promote conservation and nature study at Yakushima. The role of local NGOs is particularly important to mitigate conflicts between people and wildlife. Though hundreds of macaques are still captured as pests annually in Yakushima, we continue the conservation measures and spread awareness of conservation in cooperation with the local NGOs.


conservation group size home range Macaca fuscata yakui socioecology vertical distribution Yakushima 



We originally prepared this article for the plenary lecture at the 21st Congress of the International Primatological Society held June 25–30, 2006, in Entebbe, Uganda. I warmly thank Dr. William Olupot, Dr. Debby Cox, Tamara Bettinger, Katherine Leighty, and the organizing committee of the Congress for their efforts and hospitality. I thank Dr. Richard Wrangham and the Council members of IPS for their kind arrangements, as well as researchers and students who have participated in fieldwork and the citizens who have participated in NGO activities at Yakushima for their invaluable help and hospitality. This study was financed in part by the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (No. 19107007).


  1. Agetsuma, N. (1995a). Dietary selection by Yakushima macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui): The influence of food availability and temperature. International Journal of Primatology, 16, 611–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agetsuma, N. (1995b). Foraging strategies of Yakushima macaques (Macvaca fuscata yakui). International Journal of Primatology, 16, 595–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agetsuma, N. (1995c). Foraging synchrony in a group of Yakushima macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui). Folia Primatologica, 64, 167–179.Google Scholar
  4. Agetsuma, N., & Nakagawa, N. (1998). Effects of habitat differences on feeding behaviors of Japanese monkeys: Comparison between Yakushima and Kinkazan. Primates, 39, 275–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Agetsuma, N., & Noma, N. (1995). Rapid shifting of foraging pattern by Yakushima macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) in response to heavy fruiting of Myrica rubra. International Journal of Primatology, 16, 247–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Azuma, S., Ohtake, M., Yamagiwa, J., Ashizawa, S.,Akaza, H., Miyagawa, T., et al. (1984). Ecological survey of the Yaku Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata yakui) in the Yaku-shima Widerness Area, Yakushima Island. Conservation Reports of The Yaku-shima Widerness Area, Kyushu, Japan, Nature Conservation Bureau, Environment Agency, Japan, pp. 517–568 (in Japanese with English summary).Google Scholar
  7. Clutton-Brock, T. H., & Harvey, P. (1977). Primate ecology and social organization. Journal of Zoology (London), 183, 1–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Domingo-Roura, X., Marmi, J., Andres, O., Yamagiwa, J., & Terradas, J. (2004). Genotyping from semen of wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). American Journal of Primatology, 62, 31–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Furuichi, T. (1983). Interindividual distance and influence of dominance on feeding in a natural Japanese macaque troop. Primates, 24, 445–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Furuichi, T. (1984). Symmetrical patterns in non-agonistic social interactions found in unprovisioned Japanese macaques. Journal of Ethology, 2, 109–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Furuichi, T. (1985). Inter-male associations in wild Japanese macaque troop on Yakushima Island, Japan. Primates, 26, 219–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Furuya, Y. (1960). An example of fission of a natural troop of Japanese monkeys at Mt. Gagyusan. Primates, 2, 149–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Furuya, Y. (1969). On the fission of troops of Japanese monkeys: II. General view of troop fission of Japanese monkeys. Primates, 10, 47–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hanya, G. (2004a). Diet of a Japanese macaque troop in the coniferous forest of Yakushima. International Journal of Primatology, 25, 55–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hanya, G. (2004b). Seasonal variations in the activity budget of Japanese macaques in the coniferous forest of Yakushima: Effects of food and temperature. American Journal of Primatology, 63, 165–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hanya, G., Kiyono, M., Yamada, A., Suzuki, K., Furukawa, M., Yoshida, Y., et al. (2006). Not only animal food abundance but also fallback food quality determines the Japanese macaque density: Evidence from seasonal variations in home range size. Primates, 47, 275–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hanya, G., Yoshihiro, S., Zamma, K., Kubo, R., & Takahata, Y. (2003). New method to census primate groups: Estimating group density of Japanese macaques by point census. American Journal of Primatology, 60, 43–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hanya, G., Yoshihiro, S., Zamma, K., Matsubara, H., Ohtake, M., Kubo, R., et al. (2004). Environmental determinants of altitudinal variations in relative group densities of Japanese macaques on Yakushima. Ecological Research, 19, 485–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hayaishi, S., & Kawamoto, Y. (2006). Low genetic diversity and biased distribution of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata yakui) on Yakushima Island. Primates, 47, 158–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hayakawa, S., & Takenaka, O. (1999). Urine as another potential source for template DNA in polymerase chain reaction (PCR). American Journal of Primatology, 48, 199–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Henzi, P., & Barrett, L. (2003). Evolutionary ecology, sexual conflict, and behavioral differentiation among baboon populations. Evolutionary Anthropology, 12, 217–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hill, D. A. (1992). Conservation of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) in Yakushima: The need for effective protected areas. In N. Itoigawa, Y. Sugiyama, G. Sackett, & R. K. R. Thompson (Eds.) Topics in primatology, Vol. 2: Behavior, ecology and conservation (pp. 395–401). Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.Google Scholar
  23. Hill, D. A., Agetsuma, N., & Suzuki, S. (1994). Preliminary survey of relative group density of Macaca fuscata yakui in relation to logging history at seven study sites in Yakushima Japan. Primate Research, 10, 85–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hill, D. A., & Okayasu, N. (1995). Absence of ‘youngest ascendancy’ in the dominance relations of sisters in wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui). Behaviour, 132, 267–279.Google Scholar
  25. Itani, J. (1952). Natural Society of Yakushima Macaques. Primate Research Group of Kyoto University (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  26. Itani, J. (1954). The Monkeys of Takasakiyama. In Imanishi, K. (ed.), Nihon Dobutsuki II.Kobunsha, Tokyo (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  27. Itani, J. (1977). Evolution of primate social structure. Journal of Human Evolution, 6, 235–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Itani, J. (1985). The evolution of primate social structure. Man, 20, 593–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Iwano, T. (1983). Concluding remarks on the socio-ecological characteristics of the Yakushimazaru. The Nihonzaru, 5, 86–95 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  30. Janson, C. H. (2000). Primate socio-ecology: The end of a golden age. Evolutionary Anthropology, 9, 73–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kawai, M. (1964). Ecology of Japanese Monkeys. Tokyo: Kawadeshobo (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  32. Kawai, M. (1965). Newly-acquired pre-cultural behavior of the natural troop of Japanese monkeys of Koshima Islet. Primates, 6, 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kawamura, S. (1958). The matriarchal social order in the Minoo-B group: A study on the rank system of Japanese macaque. Primates, 1, 149–156 (in Japanese with English summary).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kawamura, S. (1959). The process of sub-culture propagation among Japanese macaques. Primates, 2, 43–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kawamura, S. (1965). Sub-culture in Japanese macaques. In S. Kawamura, & J. Itani (Eds.) Monkey (pp. 237–289). Tokyo: Chuoukouron-sha, (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  36. Koenig, A. (2002). Competition for resources and its behavioral consequences among female primates. International Journal of Primatology, 23, 759–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Koyama, N. (1970). Changes in dominance rank and division of a wild Japanese monkey troop in Arashiyama. Primates, 11, 335–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Maruhashi, T. (1980). Feeding behavior and diet of the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata yakui) on Yakushima Island, Japan. Primates, 21, 141–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Maruhashi, T. (1982). An ecological study of troop fission of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata yakui) on Yakushima Island, Japan. Primates, 23, 317–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Maruhashi, T., Saito, C., & Agetsuma, N. (1998). Home range strucure and inter-group competition for land of Japanese macaques in evergreen and deciduous forests. Primates, 39, 291–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Maruhashi, T., & Takasaki, H. (1996). Socio-ecological dynamics of Japanese macaque troop. In J. E. Fa, & D. G. Lindburg (Eds.) Evolution and ecology of Macaque Societies (pp. 146–159). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Masui, K. (1976). A record on group size and composition of Japanese macaques: Reconsideration on the knowledge of group size and population. Ecological Physiology, 17, 185–194 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  43. Matsubara, M., & Sprague, D. S. (2004). Mating tactics in response to costs incurred by mating with multiple males in wild female Japanese macaques. International Journal of Primatology, 25, 901–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mitani, M. (1986). Voiceprint identification and its application to sociological studies of wild Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata yakui). Primates, 27, 397–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Miura, K. (1984). Nature conservation in Yakushima. Monkey, 28, 64–69 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  46. Nihonzaru Editorial Committee (1977). Changes in population of Japanese macaques at monkey parks in Japan. Nihonzaru, 3, 113–120 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  47. Nishimura, A. (1973). The third fission of a Japanese monkey group at Takasakiyama. In C. R. Carpenter (Ed.) Behavioural Regulators of Behaviour in Primates (pp. 115–123). Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Noma, N., & Yumoto, T. (1997). Fruiting phenology of animal-dispersed plants in response to winter migration of frugivores in a warm temperate forest on Yakushima Island, Japan. Ecological Research, 12, 119–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Oi, T. (1988). Sociological study on the troop fission of wild Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata yakui) on Yakushima Island. Primates, 29, 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Okayasu, N. (1992). Prolonged estrus in female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) and the social influence on estrus: With special reference to male intertroop movement. In N. Itoigawa, Y. Sugiyama, G. P. Sackett, & R. K. R. Thompson (Eds.), Topics in primatology, Vol. 2: Behavior, ecology and conservation (pp. 163–178). Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.Google Scholar
  51. Okayasu, N. (2001). Contrast of estrus in accordance with social contexts between two troops of wild Japanese macaques on Yakushima. Anthropological Science, 109, 121–139.Google Scholar
  52. Otani, T., & Shibata, E. (2000). Seed dispersal and predation by Yakushima macaques, Macaca fuscata yakui, in a warm temperate forest of Yakushima Island, southern Japan. Ecological Research, 15, 133–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Saito, C., Sato, S., Suzuki, S., Sugiura, H., Agetsuma, N., Takahata, Y., et al. (1998). Aggressive intergroup encounters in two populations of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Primates, 39, 303–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Soltis, J. (1999). Measuring male-female relationships during the mating season in wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui). Primates, 40, 453–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Soltis, J. (2002). Do primate females gain nonreproductive benefits by mating with multiple males? Theoretical and empirical considerations. Evolutionary Anthropology, 11, 187–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Soltis, J., Thomsen, R., Matsubayashi, K., & Takenaka, O. (2000). Infanticide by resident males and female encounter-strategies in wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 48, 195–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Soltis, J., Thomsen, R., & Takenaka, O. (2001). The interaction of male and female reproductive strategies and paternity in wild Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata. Animal Behavior, 62, 485–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sprague, D. S. (1991). Mating by non-troop males among the Japanese macaques of Yakushima macaques of Yakushima Island. Folia Primatologica, 57, 156–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sprague, D. S. (1992). Life history and male intertroop mobility among Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). International Journal of Primatology, 13, 437–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sprague, D. S. (1998). Age, dominance rank, natal status, and tenure among male macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 105, 511–521.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sprague, D. S. (2000). Topographic effects on spatial data at a Japanese macaque study site. American Journal of Primatology, 52, 143–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sprague, D. S., Suzuki, S., Takahashi, H., & Sato, S. (1998). Male life history in natural populations of Japanese macaques: Migration, dominance rank, and troop participation of males in two habitats. Primates, 39, 351–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sprague, D. S., Suzuki, S., & Tsukahara, T. (1996). Variation in social mechanism by which males attained the alpha rank among Japanese macaques. In J. E. Fa, & D. G. Lindburg (Eds.) Evolution and Ecology of Macaque Societies (pp. 444–458). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Stacey, P. B. (1986). Group size and foraging efficiency in yellow baboons. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 18, 175–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sterck, E. H. M., & Steenbeek, R. (1997). Female dominance relationships and food competition in the sympatric Thomas’s langur and long-tailed macaques. Behaviour, 134, 749–774.Google Scholar
  66. Sugiura, H. (1993). Temporal and acoustic correlates in vocal exchange of coo calls in Japanese macaques. Behaviour, 124, 207–225.Google Scholar
  67. Sugiura, H. (1998). Matching of acoustic features during the vocal exchange of coo calls by Japanese macaques. Animal Behavior, 55, 673–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sugiura, H., Agetsuma, N., & Suzuki, S. (2002). Troop extinction and female fusion in wild Japanese macaques in Yakushima. International Journal of Primatology, 23, 69–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sugiura, H., Agetsuma, N., Tanaka, T., Otani, T., Matsubara, M., & Kobayashi, N. (1997). Research of provisioned wild Japanese monkeys in Yakushima Island—comparison between 1993 and 1995. Primate Research, 13, 41–52 (in Japanese with English summary).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sugiura, H., & Masataka, N. (1995). Temporal and acoustic flexibility in vocal exchanges of coo calls in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). In E. Zimmermann, J. D. Newman, & U. Jürgens (Eds.) Current topics in primate vocal communication (pp. 121–140). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  71. Sugiura, H., Saito, C., Sato, S., Agetsuma, N., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., et al. (2000). Variation in intergroup encounters in two populations of Japanese macaques. International Journal of Primatology, 21, 519–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sugiyama, Y. (1960). On the division of a natural troop of Japanese monkeys at Takasakiyama. Primates, 2, 109–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sugiyama, Y. (1976). Life history of male Japanese monkeys. Advances in the Study of Behavior, 7, 255–284.Google Scholar
  74. Sugiyama, Y., & Ohsawa, H. (1982). Population dynamics of Japanese monkeys with special reference to the effect of artificial feeding. Folia Primatologica, 39, 238–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Suzuki, S., Hill, D. A., & Sprague, D. S. (1998b). Intertroop transfer and dominance rank structure of nonnatal male Japanese macaques in Yakushima, Japan. International Journal of Primatology, 19, 703–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Suzuki, S., Noma, N., & Izawa, K. (1998a). Inter-annual variation of reproductive parameters and fruit availability in two populations of Japanese macaques. Primates, 39, 313–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Suzuki, A., Wada, K., Yoshihiro, S., Tokita, E., Hara, S., & Aburada, Y. (1975). Population dynamics and group movement of Japanese monkeys in Yokoigawa Valley, Shiga Heights. Physiological Ecology, 16, 15–23 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  78. Takahashi, H., and Furuichi, T. 1998. Comparative study of grooming relationships among wild Japanese macaques in Kinkazan A troop and Yakushima M troop. Primates, 39(3):365–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Takahata, Y., Koyama, N., & Suzuki, S. (1995). Do old aged females experience a long post-reproductive life span? The cases of Japanese macaques and chimpanzees. Primates, 36, 169–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Takahata, Y., Sprague, D. S., Suzuki, S., & Okayasu, N. (1994b). Female competition, co-existence, and mating structure of wild Japanese macaques on Yakushima Island, Japan. In P. J. Jarman, & A. Rossister (Eds.) Animal societies: Individuals, interaction and organization (pp. 163–179). Kyoto University Press: Kyoto.Google Scholar
  81. Takahata, Y., Suzuki, S., Agetsuma, N., Okayasu, N., Sugiura, H., Takahashi, H., et al. (1998). Reproduction of wild Japanese macaque females of Yakushia and Kinkazan Islands: A preliminary report. Primates, 39, 339–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Takahata, Y., Suzuki, S., Okayasu, N., & Hill, D. (1994a). Troop extinction and fusion in wild Japanese macaques of Yakushima Island, Japan. American Journal of Primatology, 33, 317–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Thomsen, R. (1997). Observation of periparturitional behaviour in wild Yakushima macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui). Folia Primatologica, 68, 338–341.Google Scholar
  84. Thomsen, R., & Soltis, J. (2004). Male masturbation in free-ranging Japanese macaques. International Journal of Primatology, 25, 1033–1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Thomsen, R., Soltis, J., Matsubara, M., Matsubayashi, K., Onuma, M., & Takenaka, O. (2006). How costly are ejaculates for Japanese macaques? Primates, 47, 272–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tsukahara, T. (1990). Initiation and solicitation in male-female grooming in a wild Japanese macaque troop on Yakushima Island. Primates, 31, 147–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. van Schaik, C. P. (1983). Why are diurnal primates living in groups? Behaviour, 87, 120–144.Google Scholar
  88. van Schaik, C. P. (1989). The ecology of social relationships amongst female primates. In V. Stansen, & R. Foley (Eds.) Comparative socio-ecology of mammals and humans (pp. 195–218). Blackwell Publications: Oxford.Google Scholar
  89. Waser, P. M. (1977). Feeding, ranging, and group size in the mangabey Cerccebus albigena. In T. H. Clutton-Brock (Ed.) Primate ecology (pp. 182–222). Academic Press: London.Google Scholar
  90. Whitten, P. L. (1983). Diet and dominance among female vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). American Journal of Primatology, 5, 139–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wrangham, R. W. (1980). An ecological model of female-bonded primate groups. Behaviour, 75, 262–300.Google Scholar
  92. Yamagiwa, J. (1985). Socio-sexual factors of troop fission in wild Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata yakui) on Yakushima Island, Japan. Primates, 26, 105–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Yamagiwa, J., & Hill, D. A. (1998). Intra-specific variation in the social organization of Japanese macaques: Past and present scope of field studies in natural habitats. Primates, 39, 257–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Yamagiwa, J., Izawa, K., & Maruhashi, T. (1998). Long-term studies on wild Japanese macaques in natural habitats at Kinkazan and Yakushima: Preface. Primates, 39, 255–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Yoshihiro, S., Furuichi, T., Manda, M., Ohkubo, N., Kinoshita, M., Agetsuma, N., et al. (1998). The distribution of wild Yakushima macaque (Macaca fuscata yakui) troops around the coast of Yakushima Island, Japan. Primate Research, 14, 179–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Yoshihiro, S., Ohtake, M., Matsubara, H., Zamma, K., Hanya, G., Tanimura, Y., et al. (1999). Vertical distribution of wild Yakushima macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) in the western area of Yakushima Island, Japan: Preliminary report. Primates, 40, 409–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Yumoto, T., Noma, N., & Maruhashi, T. (1998). Cheek-pouch dispersal of seeds by Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata yakui) on Yakushima Island, Japan. Primates, 39, 325–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Human Evolution Studies, Graduate School of ScienceKyoto UniversitySakyo KyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations