International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 321–336 | Cite as

Postconflict Behavior Among Male Japanese Macaques

  • Bonaventura MajoloEmail author
  • Raffaella Ventura
  • Nicola Koyama


Reconciliation was first described more than 20 years ago. Since then, it has been observed in many mammals (mainly primates) but data on postconflict behavior among males are still scarce because they usually aggressively compete for mating partners, rarely maintain amicable relationships with one another. Accordingly, reconciliation is expected to occur at low rates. Although this is true for Japanese macaque males, the subspecies on Yakushima Island (Macaca fuscata yakui) seems to represent an exception as grooming among males occurs often. We analyzed postconflict behavior among them and discuss the possible factors that may favor the occurrence of grooming and reconciliation. Selective attraction between former opponents—reconciliation—occurred soon after conflicts. Consolation—affiliative interactions between a focal animal and group members other than the former opponents occurring earlier in PCs than in MCs—was absent among males. Conciliatory tendency is higher for Yakushima macaque males (0.31) versus that in studies on the other subspecies Macaca fuscata. We discuss differences in the behavioral ecology of the 2 subspecies, the ecological and social factors that may favor the occurrence of reconciliation, and the possible benefits that males gain from grooming exchange and reconciliation.


Japanese macaque male behavior postconflict behavior reconciliation Yakushima 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agetsuma, N., and Nakagawa, N. (1998). Effects of habitat differences on feeding behaviors of Japanese monkeys: comparison between Yakushima and Kinkazan. Primates 39(3): 275–290.Google Scholar
  2. Altmann, J. (1974). Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behaviour 49: 227–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Aureli, F. (1992a). postconflict behaviour among wild long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 31: 329–337.Google Scholar
  4. Aureli, F. (1992b). Kin-oriented redirection among Japanese macaques: an expression of a revenge system? Anim. Behav. 44: 283–291.Google Scholar
  5. Aureli, F. (1997). postconflict anxiety in nonhuman primates: the mediating role of emotion in conflict resolution. Aggr. Behav. 23: 315–328.Google Scholar
  6. Aureli, F., Cords, M., and van Schaik, C. P. (2002). Conflict resolution following aggression in gregarious animals: a predictive framework. Anim. Behav. 64: 325–343.Google Scholar
  7. Aureli, F., Das, M., Verleur, D., and van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1994). Postconflict social interactions among Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). Int. J. Primatol. 15(3): 471–485.Google Scholar
  8. Aureli, F., and de Waal, F. B. M. (2000). Natural Conflict Resolution. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  9. Aureli, F., and van Schaik, C. P. (1991a). postconflict behaviour in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis): I. The social events. Ethology 89: 89–100.Google Scholar
  10. Aureli, F., van Schaik, C. P., and van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1989). Functional aspects of reconciliation among captive long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Am. J. Primatol. 19: 39–51.Google Scholar
  11. Aureli, F., Veenema, H. C., van Panthasleon van Eck, C. J., and van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1993). Reconciliation, consolation, and redirection in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Anim. Behav. 124(1-2): 1–21.Google Scholar
  12. Call, J. (1999). The effect of inter-opponent distance on the occurrence of reconciliation in stumptail (Macaca arctoides) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Primates 40(3): 515–523.Google Scholar
  13. Call, J., Aureli, F., and de Waal, F. B. M. (1999). Reconciliation patterns among stumptailed macaques: a multivariate approach. Anim. Behav. 58: 165–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cheney, D. L. (1981). Intergroup encounters among free-ranging vervet monkeys. Folia Primatol. 35: 124–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cheney, D. L. (1992). Intragroup cohesion and intergroup hostility: the relation between grooming distributions and intergroup competition among female primates. Behav. Ecol. 3(4): 334–345.Google Scholar
  16. de Waal, F. B. M. and Aureli, F. (1996). Consolation, reconciliation, and a possible cognitive difference between macaque and chimpanzee. In Russon, A. E., Bard, K. A., and Parker, S. T. (eds.), Reaching into Thought, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 80–110.Google Scholar
  17. de Waal, F. B. M., and van Roosmalen, A. (1979). Reconciliation and consolation among chimpanzees. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 5: 55–66.Google Scholar
  18. de Waal, F. B. M., and Yoshihara, D. (1983). Reconciliation and redirected affection in rhesus monkeys. Behaviour 85: 224–241.Google Scholar
  19. Dunbar, R. I. M. (1991). Functional significance of social grooming in primates. Folia Primatol. 57: 121–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dunbar, R. I. M. (1988). Primate Social Systems. Cornell University Press, Ithaca.Google Scholar
  21. Enomoto, T. (1981). Male aggression and the sexual behavior of Japanese monkeys. Primates 22: 15–23.Google Scholar
  22. Grant, J. W. A., and Foam, P. E. (2002). Effect of operational sex ratio on female-female versus male-male competitive aggression. Can. J. Zool. 80(12): 2242–2246.Google Scholar
  23. Hamilton, W. D. (1964). The genetical evolution of social behavior. I and II. J. Theor. Biol. 7: 1–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Hill, D. A., and van Hooff, J.A.R.A.M. (1994). Affiliative relationships between males in groups of nonhuman primates: a summary. Behaviour 130(3-4): 143–149.Google Scholar
  25. Judge, P. G. (1991). Dyadic and triadic reconciliation in pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Am. J. Primatol. 23: 225–237.Google Scholar
  26. Kappeler, P. M., and van Schaik, C. P. (1992). Methodological and evolutionary aspects of reconciliation among primates. Ethology 92: 51–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Koyama, N. F. (2001). The long-term effects of reconciliation in Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata. Ethology 107: 975–987.Google Scholar
  28. Kurland, J. A. (1977). Kin selection in the Japanese monkeys. Contrib. Primatol. 12: 1–145. Karger, Basel, Switzerland.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Maestripieri, D., Schino, G., Aureli, F., and Troisi, A. (1992). A modest proposal: displacement activities as an indicator of emotions in primates. Anim. Behav. 44: 967–979.Google Scholar
  30. Majolo, B., Ventura, R., and Koyama, N. F. (in press). Sex, rank and age differences in the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata yakui) participation in inter-group encounters. Ethology.Google Scholar
  31. Martin, P., and Bateson, P. (1993). Measuring Behaviour. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.Google Scholar
  32. Matsumura, S. (1996). The evolution of “egalitarian” and “despotic” social systems among macaques. Primates 40(1): 23–31.Google Scholar
  33. Mc Donald, D. B., and Potts, W. K. (1994). Cooperative display and relatedness among males in a lek-mating bird. Science 266: 1030–1032.Google Scholar
  34. Melnick, D. J., and Hoelzer, G. A. (1996). The population genetic consequences of macaques social organisation and behaviour. In Fa, J. E., and Lindburg, D. G. (eds.), Evolution and Ecology of Macaque Societies, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 413–443.Google Scholar
  35. Melnick, D. J., and Pearl, M. C. (1987). Cercopithecines in multimale groups: genetic diversity and population structure. In: Smuts, B. B., Cheney, D. L., Seyfarth, R. M., Wrangham, R. W., and Struhsaker, T. T. (eds.), Primate Societies, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 121–134.Google Scholar
  36. Nakagawa, N. (1998). Ecological determinants of the behavior and social structure of Japanese monkeys: a synthesis. Primates 39(3): 375–383.Google Scholar
  37. Neumann, D. R. (1999). Agonistic behavior in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in relation to the availability of haul-out space. Mar. Mammal Sci. 15(2): 507–525.Google Scholar
  38. Noë, R. (1994). A model of coalition formation among male baboons with fighting ability as the crucial parameter. Anim. Behav. 47: 211–213.Google Scholar
  39. Nunn, C. L. (2000). Collective benefits, free-riders, and male extra-group conflict. In Kappeler, P. M. (ed.), Primate Males, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 192–204.Google Scholar
  40. Nunn, C. L., and Lewis, R. J. (2002). Cooperation and collective action in animal behaviour. In Noë, R., van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M., and Hammerstein, P. (eds.), Economics in Nature, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 42–66.Google Scholar
  41. Petit, O., Abegg, C., and Thierry, B. (1997). A comparative study of aggression and conciliation in three cercopithecine monkeys (Macaca fuscata, Macaca nigra, Papio papio). Behaviour 134: 415–432.Google Scholar
  42. Preuschoft, S., and Paul, A. (2000). Dominance, egalitarianism, and stalemate: an experimental approach to male-male competition in Barbary macaques. In Kappeler, P. M. (ed.), Primate Males, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 205–216.Google Scholar
  43. Rubenstein, D. I. (1986). Ecology and sociality in horses and zebras. In Rubenstein, D. I., and Wrangham, R. W. (eds.), Ecological Determinants of Social Evolution, Princeton University Press, Princeton, pp. 282–302.Google Scholar
  44. Saito, C., Sato, S., Suzuki, S., Sugiura, H., Agetsuma, N., Takahata, Y., Sasaki, C., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., and Yamagiwa, J. (1998). Aggressive intergroup encounters in two populations of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Primates 39(3): 303–312.Google Scholar
  45. Samuels, A., and Flaherty, C. (2000). Peaceful conflict resolution in the sea? In Aureli, F., and de Waal, F. B. M. (Eds.), Natural Conflict Resolution, University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 229–231.Google Scholar
  46. Schino, G. (1998). Reconciliation in domestic goats. Behaviour 135: 343–356.Google Scholar
  47. Schino, G., Perretta, G., Taglioni, A. M., Monaco, V., and Troisi, A. (1996). Primate displacement activities as an ethopharmacological model of anxiety. Anxiety 2: 186–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Schino, G., Rosati, L., and Aureli, F. (1998). Intragroup variation in conciliatory tendencies in captive Japanese macaques. Behaviour 135: 897–912.Google Scholar
  49. Silk, J. B. (1992). The patterning of intervention among male bonnet macaques: reciprocity, revenge, and loyalty. Curr Anthropol. 33(3): 318–325.Google Scholar
  50. Soltis, J., Mitsunaga, F., Shimizu, K., Yanagihara, Y., and Nozaki, M. (1997). Sexual selection in Japanese macaques II: female mate choice and male-male competition. Anim. Behav. 54: 737–746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Soltis, J., Thomsen, R., Matsubayashi, K., and Takenaka, O. (2000). Infanticide by resident males and female counter-strategies in wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 48: 195–202.Google Scholar
  52. Sprague, D. S. (1991). Mating by nontroop males among the Japanese macaques of Yakushima Island. Folia Primatol. 57: 156–58Google Scholar
  53. Sprague, D. S. (1992). Life history and male intertroop mobility among Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Int. J. Primatol. 13: 437–454.Google Scholar
  54. Sprague, D. S., Suzuki, S., Takahashi, H., and Sato, S. (1998). Male life history in natural populations of Japanese macaques: migration, dominance rank, and troop participation of males in two habitats. Primates 39(3): 351–363.Google Scholar
  55. Sugiura, H., Saito, C., Sato, S., Agetsuma, N., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Furuichi, T., and Takahata, Y. (2000). Variation in intergroup encounters in two populations of Japanese macaques. Int. J. Primatol. 21(3): 519–535.Google Scholar
  56. Suzuki, S., Hill, D. A., and Sprague, D. S. (1998). Intergroup transfer and dominance rank structure of nonnatal male Japanese macaques in Yakushima, Japan. Int. J. Primatol. 19(4): 703–722.Google Scholar
  57. Takahashi, H., and Furuichi, T. (1998). A comparative study of grooming relationships among wild Japanese macaques in Kinkazan A troop and Yakushima M troop. Primates 39(3): 313–324.Google Scholar
  58. Trivers, R. L. (1971). The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Q. Rev. Biol. 46: 35–57.Google Scholar
  59. Trivers, R. L. (1972). Parental investment and sexual selection. In Campbell, P. (ed.), Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man, Aldine, Chicago, pp. 136–179.Google Scholar
  60. van Hoof, J. A. R. A. M. (2000). Relationships among non-human primate males: a deductive framework. In Kappeler, P. M. (ed.), Primate Males, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 183–191.Google Scholar
  61. Veenema, H. C., Das, M., and Aureli, F. (1994). Methodological improvements for the study of reconciliation. Behav. Processes 31: 29–38.Google Scholar
  62. Verbeek, P., and de Waal, F. B. M. (1997). Postconflict behavior of captive brown capuchins in the presence and absence of attractive food. Int. J. Primatol. 18(5): 703–725.Google Scholar
  63. Watanabe, K. (1979). Alliance formation in a free-ranging troop of Japanese macaques. Primates 20(4): 459–474.Google Scholar
  64. Wittig, R. M., and Boesch, C. (2003). “Decision-making” in conflicts of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): an extension of the relational model. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 54: 491–504.Google Scholar
  65. Zuckerman, S. (1932). The Social Life of Monkeys and Apes. Kegan and Co., London.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bonaventura Majolo
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Raffaella Ventura
    • 2
  • Nicola Koyama
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Biological and Earth SciencesLiverpool John Moores UniversityLiverpoolEngland
  2. 2.Scottish Primate Research Group, School of Social and Health Sciences – Division of PsychologyUniversity of Abertay DundeeScotland
  3. 3.School of Biological and Earth SciencesLiverpoolEngland

Personalised recommendations