Advertisement

International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 55–71 | Cite as

Reproductive Parameters of FemalePan paniscus and P. troglodytes: Quality versus Quantity

  • Mieke De Lathouwers
  • Linda Van Elsacker
Article

Abstract

We investigated intra- and interspecific differences in life history and reproductive parameters in bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We compare the parameters of wild and captive females in order to shed light on the influence of habitat or specific differences or both on reproduction. We present new and additional information on reproductive parameters from captive bonobos and chimpanzees. Captive chimpanzees birth more live offspring and have a shorter interbirth interval, but experience higher infant mortality than captive bonobos. Although captive bonobo females tend to start reproduction at a younger age than chimpanzees, this is effectively only so for wild-born females of both species. Ultimately both species reach the same rate of production of offspring surviving to 5 yr. These results contrast with data from the wild. Wild bonobos tend to have higher reproductive success, a higher fertility rate and a shorter interbirth interval than wild chimpanzees. Reproduction is similar for wild and captive bonobos, which suggests that they are producing at their maximum under both conditions. Overall captive chimpanzees perform better than their wild conspecifics, probably because of lower feeding competition. Infant survival is the only specific difference not affected by captivity. Bonobo infants survive better, which suggests that chimpanzee infants are more at risk. We argue that the interspecific variation in reproductive parameters in captivity is related to the different influence of captivity on reproduction and different pressures of external sources of infant and juvenile mortality.

Key words

Pan paniscus Pan troglodytes reproductive parameters feral versus captive 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Boesch, C., and Boesch-Achermann, H. (2000). The Chimpanzees of the Taï Forest, Behavioural Ecology and Evolution, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Courtenay, J. (1987). Post-partum amenorrhoea, birth intervals and reproductive potential in captive chimpanzees. Primates 28: 543–546.Google Scholar
  3. Courtenay, J. (1988). Infant mortality in mother-reared captive chimpanzees at Taronga Zoo, Sydney. Zoo Biol. 7: 61–68.Google Scholar
  4. Courtenay, J., and Santow, G. (1989). Mortality of wild and captive chimpanzees. Folia Prim. 52: 167–177.Google Scholar
  5. Debyser, I. W. J. (1995). Catarrhine juvenile mortality in captivity under seminatural conditions, and in the wild. Int. J. Primatol. 16(6): 935–969.Google Scholar
  6. de Waal, F. B. M. (1989). Behavioral contrasts between bonobo and chimpanzee. In Heltne P. G., and Marquardt L. A. (eds.), Understanding Chimpanzees, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp. 154–175.Google Scholar
  7. Doran, D. M., Jungers, W. L., Sugiyama, Y., Fleagle, J. G., and Heesy, C. P. (2002). Multivariate and phylogenetic approaches to understanding chimpanzee and bonobo behavioral diversity. In Boesch, C., Hohmann, G., and Marchant, L. F. (eds.), Behavioural Diversity in Chimpanzees and Bonobos, Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 14–34.Google Scholar
  8. Dunbar, R. I. M. (1988). Primate Social Systems, Croom Helm, London.Google Scholar
  9. Furuichi, T. (1989). Social interactions and the life history of female Pan paniscus in Wamba, Zaire, Int. J. Primatol. 10(3): 173–197.Google Scholar
  10. Furuichi, T., Idani, G., Ihobe, H., Kuroda, S., Kitamura, K., Mori, A., Enomoto, T., Okayasu, N., Hashimoto, C., and Kano, T. (1998). Population dynamics of wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba, Int. J. Primatol. 19(6): 1029–1043.Google Scholar
  11. Furuichi, T., and Hashimoto, C. (2002). Why female bonobos have a lower copulation rate during estrus than chimpanzees? In Boesch, C., Hohmann, G., and Marchant, L. F. (eds.), Behavioural Diversity in Chimpanzees and Bonobos, Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 156–167.Google Scholar
  12. Goodall, J. (1983). Population dynamics during a 15 year period of one community of free-living chimpanzees in the Gombe National Park, Tanzania, Z. Tierpsychol. 61: 1–60.Google Scholar
  13. Goodall, J. (1986). The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  14. Harvey, N. C. (1997). Gestation, parturition, interbirth intervals, and lactational recovery in bonobos. In Mills, J., Reinartz, G., De Bois, H., Van Elsacker, L., and Van Puijenbroeck, B. (eds.), The Care and Management of Bonobos (Pan paniscus) in Captive Environments: A husbandry Manual Jointly Developed for the Bonobo Species Survival Plan and European Endangered Species Programme, Milwaukee, Zoological Society of Milwaukee County, 2(6): 1–8.Google Scholar
  15. Hill, K., Boesch, C., Goodall, J., Pusey, A., Williams, J., and Wrangham, R. (2001). Mortality rates among wild chimpanzees, J. Hum. Evol. 40: 437–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hrdy Blaffer, S. (1999). Mother Nature. A History of Mothers, Infants and Natural Selection, Pantheon Books, New York.Google Scholar
  17. Johnson, M. J. (1997). Juvenile Bonobo’s (Age 2–5 years). In Mills, J., Reinartz, G., De Bois, H., Van Elsacker, L., and Van Puijenbroeck, B. (eds.), The Care and Management of Bonobos (Pan paniscus) in Captive Environments: A Husbandry Manual Jointly Developed for the Bonobo Species Survival Plan and European Endangered Species Programme, Milwaukee, Zoological Society of Milwaukee County 2(9): 1–9.Google Scholar
  18. Kano, T. (1992). The Last Ape: Pygmy Chimpanzee Behavior and Ecology, Stanford University Press, Stanford.Google Scholar
  19. Knott, C. (2001). Female reproductive ecology of the apes, implications for human evolution. In Ellison, P. T. (ed.), Reproductive Ecology and Human Evolution, Walter de Gruyter, Hawthorne, New York, pp. 429–463.Google Scholar
  20. Kuroda, S. (1989). Developmental retardation and behavioral characterisitcs of pygmy chimpanzees. In Heltne, P. G., and Marquardt, A. E. (eds.), Understanding Chimpanzees, Chicago Academy of Sciences, Chicago, pp. 184–193.Google Scholar
  21. Lawless, J. F. (1982). Statistical Models and Methods for Lifetime Data, John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Leus, K., and Van Puijenbroeck, B. (2001). International studbook of the bonobo (Pan paniscus). Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp. ISIS Studbook Library CD-rom. International Species Inventory system: Apple Valley, USA.Google Scholar
  23. Lycett, J., Henzi S. P., and Barrett L. (1998). Maternal investment in mountain baboons and the hypothesis of reduced care. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 42: 49–56.Google Scholar
  24. Nicolson, N. A. (1977). A comparison of early behavioral development in wild and captive chimpanzees. In Chevalier-Skolnikoff, S., and Poirier, F. E. (eds.), Primate Bio-Social Development Biological, Social, and Ecological Determinants, Garland Publishing, New York, pp. 529–560.Google Scholar
  25. Nishida, T., Takasaki, H., and Takahata, Y. (1990). Demography and reproductive profiles. In Nishida, T. (ed.), The Chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains. Sexual and Life History Strategies, University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp. 63–97.Google Scholar
  26. Nishida, T., Corp, N., Hamai, M., Hasegawa, T., Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, M., Hosaka, K., Hunt, K. D., Itoh, N., Kawanaka, K., Matsumoto-Oda, A., Mitani, J. C., Nakamura, M., Norikoshi, K., Sakamaki, T., Turner, L., Uehara, S., and Zamma, K. (2003). Demography, female life history, and reproductive profiles among the chimpanzees of Mahale. Am. J. Prim. 59(3): 99–121.Google Scholar
  27. Parish, A. R. (1996). Female relationships in bonobos (Pan paniscus): Evidence for bonding, cooperation, and female dominance in a male-philopatric species. Hum. Nature 7: 61–96.Google Scholar
  28. Pennington, R., and Harpending, H. (1988). Fitness and fertility among Kalahari !Kung. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 77: 303–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Promislow, D. E. L., and Harvey, P. H. (1990). Living fast and dying young: A comparative analysis of life-history variation among mammals. J. Zool. 220: 417–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pusey, A., Williams, J., and Goodall, J. (1997). The Influence of Dominance Rank on the Reproductive Success of Female Chimpanzees. Science 277: 828–831.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Sokal, R. R., and Rohlf, F. J. (1981). Biometry, 2nd edition. Freeman, New York.Google Scholar
  32. Spijkerman, R. P., Van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M., and Jens, W. (1990). A case of lethal offspring abuse in an established group of chimpanzees. Folia Primatol. 55(1): 41–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Sugiyama, Y. (1994). Age-specific birth rate and lifetime reproductive success of chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea. Am. J. Primatol. 32: 311–318.Google Scholar
  34. Takahata, Y., Ihobe, H., and Idani, G. (1996). Comparing copulations of chimpanzees and bonobos: Do females exhibit proceptivity or receptivity? In McGrew W., Marchant, L. F., and Nishida, T. (eds.), Great Ape Societies, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 146–155.Google Scholar
  35. Thompson-Handler, N. (1990). The Pygmy Chimpanzee: Sociosexual Behavior, Reproductive Biology and Life History. PhD. Dissertation, Yale University.Google Scholar
  36. Tutin, C. A. G. (1994). Reproductive success story, variability among chimpanzees and comparisons with gorillas. In Wrangham, R. W., McGrew, W. C., De Waal, F. B. M., and Helnte, P. G. (eds.), Chimpanzee Cultures, Harvard University Press, Cambridge & London, pp. 81–193.Google Scholar
  37. Vervaecke, H. de Vries, H., and Van Elsacker, L. (2000). Dominance and its behavioral measures in a captive group of bonobos (Pan paniscus). Int. J. Primatol. 21: 47–68.Google Scholar
  38. Vervaecke, H., Stevens, J., and Van Elsacker, L. (2003). Interfering with others: Female-female reproductive competition in Pan paniscus. In Jones C. B. (ed.), Sexual Selection and Reproductive Competition in Primates: New Perspectives and Directions, American Society of Primatologists, pp. 231–253.Google Scholar
  39. Williams, J. M., Liu, H., and Pusey, A. (2002). Costs and benefits of grouping for female chimpanzees at Gombe. In Boesch, C., Hohmann, G., and Marchant, L. F. (eds.), Behavioural Diversity in Chimpanzees and Bonobos, Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 192–203.Google Scholar
  40. Wrangham, R. W., Chapman, C. A., Clark-Arcadi, A. P., and Isabirye-Basuta, G. (1996). Social ecology of Kanyawara chimpanzees: Implications for understanding the costs of great ape groups. In McGrew, W. C., Marchant, L. F., and Nishida, T. (eds.), Great Ape Societies, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 45–57.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of AntwerpBelgium
  2. 2.Centre for Research and ConservationRoyal Zoological Society of AntwerpBelgium

Personalised recommendations