Addressing Macroscopic Issues: Helping Student Form Associations Between Biochemistry and Sports and Aiding Their Scientific Literacy

Abstract

This study aimed to promote scientific literacy among sports majors who were not interested in learning about science via a course called Addressing Macroscopic Issues in Biochemistry and Sports (AMIBAS). The participants were 54 students majoring in sports at an Indonesian university. Using a 1 group pre–post study design, students were required to participate in 2 consecutive biochemistry courses—conventional course and the AMIBAS course. The first part involved conventional teaching prior to administering a pretest, and AMIBAS was conducted in the second part, after the pretest. The 2 parts were conducted during two 7-week periods for 4 h a week. Data analysis results showed that the scientific literacy levels of 56% of the students rose from a nominal-functional level (pretest) to a conceptual-multidimensional level (posttest). Students’ attitudes toward biochemistry also became more positive. The students were able to macroscopically explain biochemistry-related issues. However, they were unable to describe issues microscopically, due to a lack of preexisting biochemistry knowledge, mental habits oriented toward macroscopic thinking, and inadequate science communication. Sharing, feedback, and discussion can scaffold students’ learning and help them to explain biochemistry and sports-related issues in more scientific terms, change their habits of mind, and become more scientifically literate.

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Appendix: Rubrics for Scoring AMIBAS Tasks

Appendix: Rubrics for Scoring AMIBAS Tasks

Rubric 1 Criteria used to select-sports cases

Sport Cases Relevance to Sport Relevance to Biochemistry Topics Cases Selection Criteria
Case 1
Case 2
Case 3
Etc
1. Occurs while exercising
2. Impact of sports activity
1. Related to cell metabolism process
2. In accordance with biochemical topics of the curriculum
Relevance both to sport and to biochemistry

Rubric 2 Students’ abilities to identify what is explicitly written in sports articles

(ExBi) and other implicit aspects (ImBi)

Sport Cases Rubric Transformation Learning Score
Case 1
Case 2
Case 3
Etc.
• Score 4: if all ExBi and ≥50% ImBi are identified
• Score 3: if ≥ 50% of ExBi and <50% ImBi are identified
• Score 2: if <50% ExBi and <50% ImBi are identified
• Score 1: if <50% ExBi and 0% ImBi are identified
• Transformation of learning has been achieved if all aspects of biochemistry are identified on ExBi and ≥ 50% identified on the ImBi
• Criteria minimum score for deep learning: 7 per case
• Final score = score per case x number of cases

Rubric 3 Students’ abilities to define biochemical aspects in sports articles

Aspects of Biochemistry Rubric Transformation Score
Aspect 1
Aspect 2
Aspect 3
Etc
• Score 4: if all aspects of biochemistry are defined precisely according to the biochemical context
• Score 3: if more than half of the biochemical aspects are defined precisely in the biochemical context
• Score 2: if less than half of the biochemical aspects are defined precisely in the biochemical context
• Score 1: if the definition does not fit the biochemical context
• A minimum of more than half of the aspects are defined appropriately in the biochemical context
• Criteria minimum score for transformation learning: 3 per case
• Final score: score of x number of cases

Rubric 4 Students’ abilities to describe aspects of the biochemistry of sports articles

Aspects of Biochemistry Rubric Transformation Score
Aspect 1
Aspect 2
Aspect 3
Etc
• Score 4: if it explains all aspects of biochemistry that have been identified in context (such as: material/component, function and relation to other variables in the biochemical context)
• Score 3: if more than half explain all the biochemical aspects that have been identified in context (such as the material/component, its function and its relation to other variables in the biochemical context)
• Score 2: if less than half explain all the biochemical aspects that have been identified in context (such as the material / component, its function and its relation to other variables in the biochemical context)
• Score 1: if it does not explain the biochemical aspects that have been identified in context
• Transformation learning is evident if there is a minimal explanation score of 3
• Final score: number of cases x score

Rubric 5 Students’ abilities to apply biochemistry to explain sports cases comprehensively

Aspects of Biochemistry Explanation Rubric Transformation Score
Aspect 1
Aspect 2
Aspect 3
Etc
• Score 4: if the description covers the question aspect: who, where, when, what, why, and how appropriately corresponds to the case
• Score 3: if the description only covers what aspects of the question what, why and how exactly fit the case
• Score 2: if the description only covers the question aspect: who, where, and when exactly appropriate case
• Score 1: if description or case explanation is not correct
• Success if minimum score is 3
• Final score: number of cases multiplied by the score

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Erman, E., Liliasari, L., Ramdani, M. et al. Addressing Macroscopic Issues: Helping Student Form Associations Between Biochemistry and Sports and Aiding Their Scientific Literacy. Int J of Sci and Math Educ 18, 831–853 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-019-09990-3

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Keywords

  • Biochemistry issues
  • Science dislike
  • Scientific literacy
  • Sports