The aim of this study was to develop and validate Science Homework Scale (SHS) which assesses middle-school (grades 6–8) students’ perceptions of teachers’ homework practices and homework self-regulation in science. Students’ perceptions of teachers’ homework practices included homework quality and feedback on homework while students’ homework self-regulation consisted of homework goal orientations (i.e. mastery, performance, and work-avoidance), homework strategy use (i.e. deep learning and management), and homework procrastination; 3 studies were conducted with 7th-grade Turkish students. In study 1 (n = 618), the data were analyzed through exploratory factor analyses. In study 2 (n = 758), in order to test the hypothesized factor structure, the data were subjected to confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs). Goodness-of-fit indices indicated good model fit and Cronbach alpha reliabilities of subscales ranged from 0.77 to 0.96. Additionally, multi-group CFAs supported factorial invariance of SHS across boys and girls. In the 3rd study (n = 8318), CFA results supported 8-factor structure. Next, a homework model which suggested relationships among students’ perceptions of teachers’ homework practices, homework self-regulation, and achievement was proposed. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses results revealed that students’ perceptions of homework quality and feedback on homework were associated with homework self-regulation components which in turn related to science achievement.


feedback on homework homework quality homework self-regulation middle school science 


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Copyright information

© Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kazim Karabekir Faculty of Education, Department of Elementary EducationAtaturk UniversityErzurumTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Education, Department of Elementary EducationMiddle East Technical UniversityAnkaraTurkey

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