The Application of an Adaptive, Web-based Learning Environment on Oxidation-reduction Reactions
- 193 Downloads
The World Wide Web is increasingly being used as a vehicle for flexible learning, where learning is seen to be free from time, geographical, and participation constraints. In addition to flexibility, the Web facilitates student-centered approaches, creating a motivating and active learning environment. The purpose of this study is to set up an adaptive learning environment on Internet and to experiment with the most suitable methods and applications. Our goal is to provide a better solution with regard to the related distance learning research. All the resources and background are from current relevant documents on the theory of asynchronous distance education. We set up an adaptive Internet learning system based on learning theory and related learning models. Our research targets are those students who took the ‘life chemistry’ course for the asynchronous distance education environment at Providence University in Taiwan. The students were divided randomly into two groups: the experimental group, which was in an adaptive learning environment, and the controlled group, which was in a non-adaptive one. We used the American Chemistry Society test bank as our research tool and used SPSS to analyse the data we obtained. Results show that the experimental group in the adaptive learning environment out-performs the controlled group. In addition, those students who are field independent learning types, have higher pre-knowledge, are male, in science departments and have a longer study time span in an adaptive learning environment show much greater achievement levels than those in the opposite situations.
Key wordsadaptive learning chemistry education distance education
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Beasley, R.E. & Waugh, M.L. (1996). The effect of content-structure focusing on learner structural knowledge acquisition, retention, and disorientation in a hypermedia environment. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 28(3), 271–281.Google Scholar
- Beck, J., Stern, M. & Haugsjaa, E. (1996a). Applications of AI in education. Available at http://www.acm.org/crossroads/xrds-1/aied.html. Cited October 1998.
- Beck, J., Stern, M. & Woolf, B. (1996b). An intelligent multimedia based tutoring system for mathematics learning. Available at http://rastelli.cs.umass.edu/~ckc/projects/math/papers/edmedia96/edmedia96.html. Cited October 1998.
- Brown, J.S., Collins, A. & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 32–42.Google Scholar
- Campbell, N.J. (1990). Self-perceived computer proficiency, computer attitudes, and computer attributions as predictors of enrollment in college computer courses. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Boston, MA, 16–20 April, ERIC document reproduction service no. ED317618.Google Scholar
- Chang, Z. (1995). What is constructed theory? Constructing and teaching. http://scied.ncue.edu.tw/ct/v3.htm. Cited October 1995 (in Chinese).
- Chen, M. (2000). The e-learning design project of physical education. The research project of NTTU physical education online course. National Tainan Teacher College, Taiwan (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Collins, A. (1989). Cognitive apprenticeship and instructional technology. Technical report No. 474, Center for the Study of Reading, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL.Google Scholar
- Conklin, J. (1987). Hypertext: An introduction and survey. IEEE Computer, 20(9), 17–41.Google Scholar
- Dochy, F.J.R.C. (1994). Investigating the use of knowledge profiles in a flexible learning environment: Analyzing student, prior knowledge states. In: S. Vosniadou, E. De Corte, H. Mandl (Eds.), Technology-base learning environments: Psychological and educational foundations (pp. 235–242). Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Dong, J. (2000). Effect of multimedia computer assisted learning process to the learning achievement of earth science course. 16th Taiwan science education conference paper, Taiwan (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Edwards, D.M. & Hardman, L. (1989). Lost in hyperspace: Cognitive mapping and navigation in a hypermedia environment. In McAleese, R. (Ed.), Hypertext: Theory into Practice. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.Google Scholar
- Greenfield, P.M. (1984). A theory of the teacher in the development of everyday life. In Rogoff, B. Lave, J. (Eds.), Everyday cognition and its development in social context (pp. 95–116). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Guo, Z. (1992). The improvement of science education from the constructed theory point, Science Development Journal Monthly, 20(5), 548–570 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Hativa, N. & Shorer, D. (1989). Socieoeconomic status, aptitude, and gender differences in CAI gains of arithmetic. Journal of Education and Research, 83(1), 11–21.Google Scholar
- Hong, S. (2000). The study and design of WWW learning process tracking system. Thesis, National Tainan Teacher College, Taiwan (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Jacobson, M., Maouri, C., Mishra, P. & Kolar, C. (1995). Learning with hypertext learning environments: Theory, design and research. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 4(4), 321–364.Google Scholar
- Lee, D. (2001). The study and application of situated learning on oxidation and reduction web environment. Thesis, Providence University, Taiwan (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Liao, K. (1999). The study of affecting factors of organic stereochemistry and problem solving models. Dissertation, National Tainan Teacher College, Taiwan (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Lin, F. (2001). The study of constructed concept teaching on chemical reaction web titles. Thesis, Providence University, Taiwan (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Lin, S. (1994). The study of relationship between the learning achievement of high school students and their different field styles. Educational Research Journal, 5, 81–112. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Liu, H. (1996). The study of constructed theory view and its meaning on the science education. Science Educational Journal Monthly, 193, 6–22. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Lou, Y. (2001). The application of scaffolding theory on the water chemistry web title. Thesis, Providence University, Taiwan (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Ma, D. (1996). The study of field independent character students on WWW searching results. Thesis, NKTU, Taipei, Taiwan (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- McDonald, S. & Stevenson, R.J. (1999). Spatial versus conceptual maps as learning tools in hypertext. Journal of Education Multimedia and Hypermedia, 8(1), 43–64.Google Scholar
- Roblyer, M.D. (1988). The effectiveness of microcomputers in education. Technological Horizons in Education, 16(2), 85–89.Google Scholar
- Rogoff, B. (1990). Apprenticeship in thinking: Cognitive development in social context. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Su, Y. (1995). The effectiveness of learning results in science course by the teaching model of fundamental school teacher and the student's knowledge style. Fundamental Educational Research Combination Journal, 3, 63–78. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- von Glasersfeld, E. (1989). An exposition of constructivism: Why some like it radical. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
- Wei, P. (1995). The effect of different interface model and personalized research results in the hyper media information system. Proceedings of the fourth ICCAI conference, S21–27 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Wen, J. & Wu, M. (2000). The practical application and educational theory in the new computerized generation. Taipei, Taiwan (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Wu, M. (1998). The message of computer network learning and its related problem. News of computer center of Taiwan educational department, Taiwan, vol. 9, pp. 23–39 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Yang, K. (1996). The relationship of knowledge style and science learning achievement (I) and (II). Science Educational Journal, 194, 2–12; and 195, 16–23 (in Chinese).Google Scholar