THz Induced Nonlinear Effects in Materials at Intensities above 26 GW/cm2

  • A. Woldegeorgis
  • T. Kurihara
  • B. Beleites
  • J. Bossert
  • R. Grosse
  • G. G. Paulus
  • F. Ronneberger
  • A. Gopal


Nonlinear refractive index and absorption coefficient are measured for common semiconductor material such as silicon and organic molecule such as lactose in the terahertz (THz) spectral regime extending from 0.1 to 3 THz. Terahertz pulses with field strengths in excess of 4.4 MV/cm have been employed. Transmittance and the transmitted spectrum were measured with Z-scan and single shot noncollinear electro-optic pump-probe techniques. The THz-induced change in the refractive index (Δn) shows frequency-dependence and a maximum change of \(-~0.128\) at 1.37 THz in lactose and up to \(+~0.169\) at 0.15 THz in silicon was measured for a peak incident THz intensity of 26 GW/cm2. Furthermore, the refractive index variation shows a quadratic dependence on the incident THz field, implying the dominance of third-order nonlinearity.


Nonlinear terahertz optics Material characterization Electro-optic detection Nonlinear refractive index 



The authors greatly acknowledge the technical support from Dr. Ingo Uschmann and Heike Marschner for the successful experimental campaign.

Funding Information

AG acknowledge the financial support from DFG through grant no. GO 1998/3-1. T.K. is thankful for the support from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Postdoctoral Fellowship for Research Abroad).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Woldegeorgis
    • 1
    • 2
  • T. Kurihara
    • 4
  • B. Beleites
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. Bossert
    • 3
  • R. Grosse
    • 1
    • 2
  • G. G. Paulus
    • 1
    • 2
  • F. Ronneberger
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. Gopal
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Helmholtz Institute JenaJenaGermany
  2. 2.Institut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, Physikalisch-Astronomische FakultätFriedrich-Schiller-Universität JenaJenaGermany
  3. 3.Otto Schott Institute of Materials ResearchFriedrich-Schiller-Universität JenaJenaGermany
  4. 4.Department of PhysicsUniversity of Konstanz, GermanyKonstanzGermany

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