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Electroporation-Induced Cell Modifications Detected with THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

  • Stefania Romeo
  • P. Thomas Vernier
  • Olga Zeni
Article

Abstract

Electroporation (electropermeabilization) increases the electrical conductivity of biological cell membranes and lowers transport barriers for normally impermeant materials. Molecular simulations suggest that electroporation begins with the reorganization of water and lipid head group dipoles in the phospholipid bilayer interface, driven by an externally applied electric field, and the evolution of the resulting defects into water-filled, lipid pores. The interior of the electroporated membrane thus contains water, which should provide a signature for detection of the electropermeabilized state. In this feasibility study, we use THz time-domain spectroscopy, a powerful tool for investigating biomolecular systems and their interactions with water, to detect electroporation in human cells subjected to permeabilizing pulsed electric fields (PEFs). The time-domain response of electroporated human monocytes was acquired with a commercial THz, time-domain spectrometer. For each sample, frequency spectra were calculated, and the absorption coefficient and refractive index were extracted in the frequency range between 0.2 and 1.5 THz. This analysis reveals a higher absorption of THz radiation by PEF-exposed cells, with respect to sham-exposed ones, consistent with the intrusion of water into the cell through the permeabilized membrane that is presumed to be associated with electroporation.

Keywords

Electroporation THz time-domain spectroscopy Human monocytes MM-6 cells Pulsed electric fields Water content 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The support and advice of Dr. Antonio Pepe (CNR-IREA, Napoli) in the analysis of THz time-domain spectroscopy data is gratefully acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CNR – Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA)NaplesItaly
  2. 2.Frank Reidy Research Center for BioelectricsOld Dominion UniversityNorfolkUSA

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