Segmentation of Concealed Objects in Passive Millimeter-Wave Images Based on the Gaussian Mixture Model

  • Wangyang Yu
  • Xiangguang Chen
  • Lei Wu


Passive millimeter wave (PMMW) imaging has become one of the most effective means to detect the objects concealed under clothing. Due to the limitations of the available hardware and the inherent physical properties of PMMW imaging systems, images often exhibit poor contrast and low signal-to-noise ratios. Thus, it is difficult to achieve ideal results by using a general segmentation algorithm. In this paper, an advanced Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) algorithm for the segmentation of concealed objects in PMMW images is presented. Our work is concerned with the fact that the GMM is a parametric statistical model, which is often used to characterize the statistical behavior of images. Our approach is three-fold: First, we remove the noise from the image using both a notch reject filter and a total variation filter. Next, we use an adaptive parameter initialization GMM algorithm (APIGMM) for simulating the histogram of images. The APIGMM provides an initial number of Gaussian components and start with more appropriate parameter. Bayesian decision is employed to separate the pixels of concealed objects from other areas. At last, the confidence interval (CI) method, alongside local gradient information, is used to extract the concealed objects. The proposed hybrid segmentation approach detects the concealed objects more accurately, even compared to two other state-of-the-art segmentation methods.


Passive millimeter wave (PMMW) Gaussian mixture model (GMM) Adaptive parameter initialization Confidence interval (CI) Hybrid segmentation 



Scientific research in this paper was supported by the Postdoctoral Foundation of China (20100480208).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Beijing Institute of TechnologySchool of Chemical Engineering and EnvironmentBeijingChina

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