Real-time Non-contact Millimeter Wave Characterization of Water-Freezing and Ice-Melting Dynamics
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We applied millimeter wave radiometry for the first time to monitor water-freezing and ice-melting dynamics in real-time non-contact. The measurements were completed at a frequency of 137 GHz. Small amounts (about 2 mL) of freshwater or saltwater were frozen over a Peltier cooler and the freezing and melting sequence was recorded. Saltwater was prepared in the laboratory that contained 3.5% of table salt to simulate the ocean water. The dynamics of freezing-melting was observed by measuring the millimeter wave temperature as well as the changes in the ice or water surface reflectivity and position. This was repeated using large amounts of freshwater and saltwater (800 mL) mimicking glaciers. Millimeter wave surface level fluctuations indicated as the top surface melted, the light ice below floated up indicating lower surface temperature until the ice completely melted. Our results are useful for remote sensing and tracking temperature for potentially large-scale environmental applications, e.g., global warming.
KeywordsMillimeter wave reflectivity Freezing Melting Fresh/sea water Remote sensing Global warming
SKS acknowledges support from the DOE’s Environment Management Science Program (EMSP). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multi-program national laboratory operated by Battelle Memorial Institute for the United States Department of Energy under DE-AC06-76RLO 1830.
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