Advertisement

Innovative Higher Education

, Volume 31, Issue 5, pp 287–299 | Cite as

The Dispositions and Skills of a Ph.D. in Education: Perspectives of Faculty and Graduate Students in One College of Education

  • Susan K. Gardner
  • Michael T. Hayes
  • Xyanthe N. Neider
Article

Abstract

Twenty-two faculty and graduate students were interviewed in one college of education in order to understand what the college and its constituents view as the skills, habits of mind, and dispositions needed to obtain a Ph.D. in Education. Analysis of the data was conducted using professional socialization as a theoretical framework, allowing for an understanding of the different perspectives of this topic as viewed through a developmental lens. Implications for theory and practice are included.

Key words

socialization doctorate education 

References

  1. Adams, K. A., & Association of American Colleges and Universities (2002). What colleges and universities want in new faculty. Preparing future faculty occasional paper series. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.Google Scholar
  2. Atwell, R. H. (1996). Doctoral education must match the nation’s needs and the realities of the marketplace. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 43(14), B4–B6 (November 29).Google Scholar
  3. Baez, B. (2002). Degree of distinction: The Ed.D. or the Ph.D. in education. Paper presented at the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Sacramento, CA (November).Google Scholar
  4. Baird, L. L. (1972). The relation of graduate students’ role relations to their stage of academic career, employment, and academic success. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 7, 428–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bargar, R. R., & Duncan, J. K. (1982). Cultivating creative endeavor in doctoral research. Journal of Higher Education, 53, 1–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Becher, T. (1981). Towards a definition of disciplinary cultures. Studies in Higher Education, 6, 109–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Becher, T., & Trowler, P. R. (2001). Academic tribes and territories (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Berelson, B. (1960). Graduate education in the United States. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  9. Biglan, A. (1973a). The characteristics of subject matter in different academic areas. Journal of Applied Psychology, 57, 195–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Biglan, A. (1973b). Relationships between subject matter characteristics and the structure and output of university departments. Journal of Applied Psychology, 57, 204–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bogdan, R. C., & Biklen, S. K. (2003). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theories and methods. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  12. Bowen, W. G., & Rudenstine, N. L. (1992). In pursuit of the Ph.D. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Boyer, E. L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the professoriate. Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation.Google Scholar
  14. Bragg, A. K. (1976). The socialization process in higher education. Washington, DC: George Washington University.Google Scholar
  15. Carpenter, D. S. (1987). On-going dialogue: Degrees of difference? The Review of Higher Education, 10, 281–286.Google Scholar
  16. Clark, B. R. (1987). The academic life: Small worlds, different worlds. Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation.Google Scholar
  17. Council of Graduate Schools (1990). The doctor of philosophy degree: A policy statement. Washington, DC: Council of Graduate Schools.Google Scholar
  18. Council of Graduate Schools (2004). Ph.D. completion and attrition: Policy, numbers, leadership, and next steps. Washington, DC: Council of Graduate Schools.Google Scholar
  19. Damrosch, D. (1995). We scholars: Changing the culture of the university. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Dill, D. D., & Morrison, J. L. (1985). Ed.D and Ph.D research training in the field of higher education: A survey and a proposal. The Review of Higher Education, 8, 169–186.Google Scholar
  21. Gaff, J. G. (2002). The disconnect between graduate education and faculty realities. Liberal Education, 88(3), 6.Google Scholar
  22. Gardner, S. K. (2005). “If it were easy, everyone would have a Ph.D.” Doctoral student success: Socialization and disciplinary perspectives. Doctoral dissertation, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington.Google Scholar
  23. Glaser, B. (1978). Theoretical sensitivity: Advances in the methodology of grounded theory. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology.Google Scholar
  24. Golde, C. M. (2005). The role of the department and discipline in doctoral student attrition: Lessons from four departments. Journal of Higher Education, 76, 669–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Golde, C. M., & Walker, G. E. (Eds.) (2006). Envisioning the future of doctoral education: Preparing stewards of the discipline. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  26. Heiss, A. M. (1968). Graduate education today: An instrument for change?: The answer seems to be no. Journal of Higher Education, 39, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jacobson, J. (2005, March 25). Report calls for abolition of Ed.D. degree and overhaul of education schools. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 51(29), A24.Google Scholar
  28. Jones, E. (2003). Beyond supply and demand: Assessing the Ph.D. job market. Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 46(4), 22–33.Google Scholar
  29. Lester, S. (2004). Conceptualizing the practitioner doctorate. Studies in Higher Education, 29, 757–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lovitts, B. E. (2001). Leaving the ivory tower: The causes and consequences of departure from doctoral study. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  31. Lovitts, B. E. (2005). Being a good course-taker is not enough: A theoretical perspective on the transition to independent research. Studies in Higher Education, 30, 137–154.Google Scholar
  32. Maxwell, J. A. (1996). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  33. Merton, R. K. (1957). Social theory and social structure. New York, NY: Free.Google Scholar
  34. Nelson, J. K., & Coorough, C. (1994). Content analysis of the PhD versus EdD dissertation. Journal of Experimental Education, 62, 158–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Osguthorpe, R. T., & Wong, M. J. (1993). The Ph.D. versus the Ed.D.: Time for a decision. Innovative Higher Education, 18, 47–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Richardson, V. (2006). Stewards of a field, stewards of an enterprise: The doctorate in education. In C. M. Golde & G. E. Walker (Eds.), Envisioning the future of doctoral education: Preparing stewards of the discipline (pp. 251–267). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  37. Robertson, N., & Sistler, J. K. (1971). The doctorate in education: An inquiry into conditions affecting pursuit of the doctoral degree in the field of education: The institutions. Bloomington, IN: American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education.Google Scholar
  38. Rosen, B. C., & Bates, A. P. (1967). The structure of socialization in graduate school. Sociological Inquiry, 37, 71–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Siegfried, J. J., Getz, M., & Anderson, K. H. (1995, May 19). The snail’s pace of innovation in higher education. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 41(36), A56.Google Scholar
  40. Soto Antony, J. (2002). Reexamining doctoral student socialization and professional development: Moving beyond the congruence and assimilation orientation. In Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research (vol. XVII, pp. 349–380). New York, NY: Agathon.Google Scholar
  41. Tierney, W. G. (1997). Organizational socialization in higher education. Journal of Higher Education, 68, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tierney, W. G., & Rhoads, R. A. (1994). Enhancing promotion, tenure and beyond: Faculty socialization as a cultural process. Washington, DC: George Washington University.Google Scholar
  43. Toma, J. D. (2002, November). Legitimacy, differentiation, and the promise of the Ed.D. in higher education. Paper presented at the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Sacramento, CA.Google Scholar
  44. Van Maanen, J. (1977). Experiencing organization: Notes on the meaning of careers and socialization. In J. Van Maanen (Ed.), Organizational careers: Some new perspectives (pp. 15–45). London, England: Wiley.Google Scholar
  45. Van Maanen, J. (1978). People processing: Strategies of organizational socialization. Organizational Dynamics, 7(1), 19–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Van Maanen, J., & Schein, E. H. (1979). Toward a theory of organizational socialization. Research in Organizational Behavior, 1, 209–264.Google Scholar
  47. Weick, K. E. (1984). Contradictions in a community of scholars: The cohesion-accuracy tradeoff. In J. L. Bess (Ed.), College and university organization: Insights from the behavioral sciences (pp. 15–29). New York, NY: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Weidman, J. C., & Stein, E. L. (2003). Socialization of doctoral students to academic norms. Research in Higher Education, 44, 641–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan K. Gardner
    • 1
  • Michael T. Hayes
    • 2
  • Xyanthe N. Neider
    • 2
  1. 1.Louisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA
  2. 2.Washington State UniversityPullmanUSA

Personalised recommendations