, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp 1594–1602 | Cite as

Inhibiting High-Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) Attenuates Inflammatory Cytokine Expression and Neurological Deficit in Ischemic Brain Injury Following Cardiac Arrest in Rats



Cardiac arrest (CA), if untreated for more than 5 min, can induce severe brain damage, the underlying mechanism of which is still unclear. Previous studies have indicated that high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein implicated in several inflammatory disorders, is involved in the inflammatory processes following brain ischemia. However, the role of HMGB1 in brain dysfunction after CA is yet to be determined. In a rat CA model, HMGB1 protein expression was higher at 1, 3, and 7 days post-CA, compared to that in naïve and sham-treated rats. Following injection of HMGB1 antibody (anti-HMGB1) into the cerebral ventricles, neurological deficit scores were significantly decreased in the CA group as compared to that in the naïve and sham group. Nissl staining showed significant neuronal loss in the hippocampal CA1 region following CA, which was significantly attenuated by anti-HMGB1-treatment (10 and 50 μg) in comparison with the vehicle-injected control. CA induced a significant increase in the levels of the cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in the hippocampus as revealed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Treatment with anti-HMGB1 significantly inhibited IL-1β and TNF-α expression. Our study suggests that HMGB1 contributes significantly to CA-induced brain dysfunction and that inhibiting HMGB1 function and expression may be an effective therapeutic approach to CA-induced ischemic brain injury.


cardiac arrest resuscitation high-mobility group box 1 hippocampus neurological deficit 



This work was supported by the Scientific Research Fund Project of Tianjin Health Bureau (303070100201), the Scientific Research Fund of Tianjin Medical University (3030502030070), and the National Key Clinical Specialty Project.


Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mei Xu
    • 1
  • Gui-ming Zhou
    • 2
  • Li-hua Wang
    • 3
  • Li Zhu
    • 2
  • Jin-mei Liu
    • 2
  • Xiao-dong Wang
    • 4
  • Hong-tao Li
    • 4
  • Lei Chen
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsTianjin Medical University General HospitalTianjinChina
  2. 2.Department of UltrasoundTianjin Medical University General HospitalTianjinChina
  3. 3.Department of Cardiothoracic SurgeryTianjin Medical University General HospitalTianjinChina
  4. 4.Department of EndocrinologyTianjin Corps Hospital of Chinese People’s Armed Police ForcesTianjinChina
  5. 5.Department of UltrasoundTianjin Corps Hospital of Chinese People’s Armed Police ForcesTianjinChina

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