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Inflammation

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 32–39 | Cite as

Neuroprotective Effect of Humic Acid on Focal Cerebral Ischemia Injury: an Experimental Study in Rats

  • Adile Ozkan
  • Halil Murat Sen
  • Ibrahim Sehitoglu
  • Hasan Alacam
  • Mustafa Guven
  • Adem Bozkurt Aras
  • Tarik Akman
  • Coşkun Silan
  • Murat Cosar
  • Handan Isin Ozisik Karaman
Article

Abstract

Stroke is still a major cause of death and permanent neurological disability. As humic acids are well-known antioxidant molecules, the purpose of this study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of humic acid in a focal cerebral ischemia model. Twenty-four rats were divided equally into three groups. A middle cerebral artery occlusion model was performed in this study where control (group II) and humic acid (group III) were administered intraperitoneally following an ischemic experimental procedure. Group I was evaluated as sham. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) levels were analyzed biochemically on the right side of the ischemic cerebral hemisphere, while ischemic histopathological studies were completed on the left side to investigate the antioxidant status. Biochemical results showed that SOD and NRF-1 levels were significantly increased in the humic acid group (III) compared with the control group (II) while MDA levels were significantly decreased. On histopathological examination, cerebral edema, vacuolization, degeneration, and destruction of neural elements were decreased in the humic acid group (III) compared with the control group (II). Cerebral ischemia was attenuated by humic acid administration. These observations indicate that humic acid may have potential as a therapeutic agent in cerebral ischemia by preventing oxidative stress.

KEY WORDS

cerebrum humic acid ischemia 

Notes

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Financial Support

No financial support

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adile Ozkan
    • 1
  • Halil Murat Sen
    • 1
  • Ibrahim Sehitoglu
    • 2
  • Hasan Alacam
    • 3
  • Mustafa Guven
    • 4
  • Adem Bozkurt Aras
    • 4
  • Tarik Akman
    • 4
  • Coşkun Silan
    • 5
  • Murat Cosar
    • 4
  • Handan Isin Ozisik Karaman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurology, Faculty of MedicineÇanakkale 18 Mart UniversityKepezTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Pathology, Faculty of MedicineRecep Tayyip Erdogan UniversityRizeTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of MedicineSamsun 19 Mayıs UniversitySamsunTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of MedicineÇanakkale 18 Mart UniversityKepezTurkey
  5. 5.Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of MedicineÇanakkale 18 Mart UniversityKepezTurkey

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