Hyperfine Interactions

, Volume 224, Issue 1–3, pp 161–170 | Cite as

A pre-Columbian copper alloy smelting furnace: Mössbauer and XRD study of the firing conditions

  • F. M. Hayashida
  • D. Killick
  • I. Shimada
  • W. Häusler
  • F. E. Wagner
  • U. Wagner


Samples from a pre-Columbian furnace used for copper alloy smelting on the Pampa de Chaparrí in northern Peru during the Middle to Late Sicán Period (AD 900–1375) were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. The data thus obtained allow conclusions as to the temperatures and oxidation-reduction conditions prevaling at different positions inside the furnace during the smelting process.


Mössbauer spectroscopy XRD Copper smelting Furnace 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. M. Hayashida
    • 1
  • D. Killick
    • 2
  • I. Shimada
    • 3
  • W. Häusler
    • 4
  • F. E. Wagner
    • 4
  • U. Wagner
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA
  2. 2.School of AnthropologyUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  3. 3.Department of AnthropologySouthern Illinois UniversityCarbondaleUSA
  4. 4.Physics DepartmentTechnical University of MunichGarchingGermany

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