In Yellowknife (Northwest Territories, Canada), roaster stack emissions from historic gold mining activities, particularly Giant Mine (1948–2004), have left a legacy of arsenic contamination in lakes. We examined Cladocera (Branchiopoda, Crustacea) subfossil remains in the recent and pre-industrial sediments of 23 lakes (arsenic gradient of 1.5–750 µg/l) within a 40 km radius of Giant Mine to provide a snapshot of regional change in Cladocera since pre-1850. We found that littoral and benthic taxa dominated the recent assemblages in high-[As] lakes (surface water [As] > 100 µg/l), while pelagic Bosmina was dominant in lakes with lower [As]. Cladocera richness and diversity were positively correlated with [As] (P = 0.004, R2 = 0.39; and P = 0.002, R2 = 0.46, respectively), except for four lakes with [As] > 100 µg/l. The lakes that showed the most pronounced changes in Cladocera since pre-1850 were those affected by both metal(loid) pollution and urban development, where complete shifts in the dominant taxa occurred. Lakes that were most heavily impacted by arsenic emissions did not experience notable shifts in Cladocera assemblages. Our study suggests that changes in Cladocera assemblages in mining-impacted subarctic lakes are modulated by local, lake-specific limnological conditions and the interaction of multiple stressors.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Alatalo, R. V., 1981. Problems in the measurement of evenness in ecology. Oikos 37: 199–204.
Appleby, P. G., 2001. Chronostratigraphic techniques in recent sediments. In Last, W. M. & J. P. Smol (eds), Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments, Vol. 1., Basin Analysis, Coring and Chronological Techniques Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht: 172–203.
Awoyemi, O. M., S. Subbiah, K. N. Thompson, A. Velazquez, A. Peace & G. D. Mayer, 2020. Trophic-level interactive effects of phosphorus availability on the toxicities of cadmium, arsenic, and their binary mixture in media-exposed Scenedesmus acutus and media and dietary-exposed Daphnia pulex. Environmental Science & Technology 54: 5651–5666.
Bartoli, M., M. Zilius, M. Bresciani, D. Vaiciute, I. Vybernaite-Lubiene, J. Petkuviene, G. Giordani, D. Daunys, T. Ruginis, S. Benelli, C. Giardino, P. A. Bukaveckas, P. Zemlys, E. Griniene, Z. R. Gasiunaite, J. Lesutiene, R. Pilkaityte & A. Baziukas-Razinkovas, 2018. Drivers of cyanobacterial blooms in a hypertrophic lagoon. Frontiers in Marine Science 5: 434.
Bekker, E. I., A. A. Kotov & D. J. Taylor, 2012. A revision of the subgenus Eurycercus (Eurycercus) Baird, 1843 (Cladocera: Eurycercidae) in the Holarctic with the description of a new species from Alaska. Zootaxa 3206: 1–40.
Bender, J., S. Rodriguez-Eaton, U. M. Ekanemesang & P. Phillips, 1994. Characterization of metal-binding bioflocculants produced by the cyanobacterial component of mixed microbial mats. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60: 2311–2315.
Blais, J. M. & J. Kalff, 1995. The influence of lake morphometry on sediment focusing. Limnology and Oceanography 40: 582–588.
Bond, M. J. & J. Carr, 2018. Permafrost thaw and implications for the fate and transport of tritium in the Canadian north. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 192: 295–311.
Bromstad, M. J., 2011. The characterization, persistence, and bioaccessibility of roaster-derived arsenic in surface soils at Giant Mine, Yellowknife, NT. Masters thesis, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, https://qspace.library.queensu.ca/handle/1974/6885.
Bromstad, M. J., L. A. Wyre & H. E. Jamieson, 2017. The characterization, mobility, and persistence, of roaster-derived arsenic in soils at Giant Mine, NWT. Applied Geochemistry 82: 102–118.
Burge, D. R. L., M. B. Edlund & D. Frisch, 2018. Paleolimnology and resurrection ecology: the future of reconstructing the past. Evolutionary Applications 11: 42–59.
Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, 1999. Canadian water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. In: Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines, 1999, Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Winnipeg.
Canam, T. 2006. Discovery, mine production, and geology of the Giant Mine. In Anglin, C. D., H. Falck, D. F. Wright, E. J. Ambrose & Geological Association of Canada, Mineral Deposits Division (eds), Gold in the Yellowknife Greenstone Belt, Northwest Territories: results of the EXTECH III multidisciplinary research project: 188–196.
Chen, G., H. Shi, J. Tao, L. Chen, Y. Liu, G. Lei, X. Liu & J. P. Smol, 2015. Industrial arsenic contamination causes catastrophic changes in freshwater ecosystems. Scientific Reports 5: 17419.
Cheney, C. L., K. Eccles, L. E. Kimpe, J. R. Thienpont, J. B. Korosi & J. M. Blais, 2020. Determining the effects of past gold mining using a sediment palaeotoxicity model. Science of the Total Environment 718: 137308.
Chengalath, R., 1982. A faunistic and ecological survey of the littoral Cladocera of Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology 60: 2668–2682.
Chételat, J., P. A. Cott, M. Rosabal, A. Houben, C. McClelland, E. B. Rose & M. Amyot, 2019. Arsenic bioaccumulation in subarctic fishes of a mine-impacted bay on Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada. PLoS ONE 14: e0221361.
Cott, P. A., B. A. Zajdlik, M. J. Palmer & M. D. McPherson, 2016. Arsenic and mercury in lake whitefish and burbot near the abandoned Giant Mine on Great Slave Lake. Journal of Great Lakes Research 42: 223–232.
Dalton, A. S., R. Timothy Patterson, H. M. Roe, A. L. Macumber, G. T. Swindles, J. M. Galloway, J. C. Vermaire, C. A. Crann & H. Falck, 2018. Late Holocene climatic variability in Subarctic Canada: Insights from a high-resolution lake record from the central Northwest Territories. PLoS ONE 13(6): e0199872.
de Sales, S. C. M., A. C. Rietzler & M. M. Ribeiro, 2016. Arsenic toxicity to cladocerans isolated and associated with iron: Implications for aquatic environments. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 88: 539–548.
Dirszowsky, R. W. & K. M. Wilson, 2016. Biogeochemical evidence of eutrophication and metal contamination of Frame Lake, City of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada. Environmental Earth Sciences 75: 1–13.
Dray, S., R. Pélissier, P. Couteron, M. J. Fortin, P. Legendre, P. R. Peres-Neto, E. Bellier, R. Bivand, F. G. Blanchet, M. De Cáceres, A. B. Dufour, E. Heegaard, T. Jombart, F. Munoz, J. Oksanen, J. Thioulouse & H. H. Wagner, 2012. Community ecology in the age of multivariate multiscale spatial analysis. Ecological Monographs 82: 257–275.
Ecosystem Classification Group, 2008. Ecological regions of the Northwest Territories: Taiga Shield. Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Government of the Northwest Territories, Yellowknife.
Environment and Climate Change Canada, 2019. Canadian Climate Normals 1981-2010 Station Data - Climate. Climate Normals & Averages., https://climate.weather.gc.ca/climate_normals/results_1981_2010_e.html?stnID=1706&autofwd=1.
Evans, M. S., 1984. Benthic and epibenthic (microcrustaceans, macrobenthos) community structure in the vicinity of a power plant, southeastern Lake Michigan. Internationale Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie 22: 488–494.
Fairchild, G. W., 1981. Movement and microdistribution of Sida crystallina and other littoral microcrustacea. Ecology 62: 1341–1352.
Frey, D. G., 1960. The ecological significance of cladoceran remains in lake sediments. Ecology 41: 684–699.
Frey, D. G., 1971. Worldwide distribution and ecology of Eurycercus and Saycia (Cladocera). Limnology and Oceanography 16: 254–308.
Frey, D. G., 1980. On the plurality of Chydorus sphaericus (O. F. Müller) (Cladocera, Chydoridae), and designation of a neotype from Sjaelsø, Denmark. Hydrobiologia 69: 83–123.
Gałka, M., K. Tobolski, E. Zawisza & T. Goslar, 2014. Postglacial history of vegetation, human activity and lake-level changes at Jezioro Linówek in northeast Poland, based on multi-proxy data. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 23: 123–152.
Galloway, J. M., H. Sanei, R. T. Patterson, T. Mosstajiri, T. Hadlari & H. Falck, 2012. Total arsenic concentrations of lake sediments near the city of Yellowknife. Northwest Territories, Geological Survey of Canada Open File: 7137.
Galloway, J. M. M., G. T. Swindles, H. E. Jamieson, M. Palmer, M. B. Parsons, H. Sanei, A. L. Macumber, R. T. Patterson, H. Falck & J. M. M. Galloway, 2017. Organic matter control on the distribution of arsenic in lake sediments impacted by ~ 65 years of gold ore processing in subarctic Canada. Science of the Total Environment 622–623: 1668–1679.
Gavel, M. J., R. T. Patterson, N. A. Nasser, J. M. Galloway, B. W. Hanna, P. A. Cott, H. M. Roe & H. Falck, 2018. What killed Frame Lake? A precautionary tale for urban planners. PeerJ 6: e4850.
Ghidini, A. R. & E. N. dos Santos-Silva, 2018. Composition, abundance, and diversity of limnetic cladocerans (Crustacea: Anomopoda and Ctenopoda) in a black-water lake in the Negro River basin, Amazonas State, Brazil. Nauplius 26: e2018018.
Gianuca, A. T., J. Engelen, K. I. Brans, F. T. T. Hanashiro, M. Vanhamel, E. M. van den Berg, C. Souffreau & L. De Meester, 2018. Taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic metacommunity ecology of cladoceran zooplankton along urbanization gradients. Ecography 41: 183–194.
Glew, J. R., 1988. A portable extruding device for close interval sectioning of unconsolidated core samples. Journal of Paleolimnology. 1: 235–239.
Gong, Y., H. Y. Ao, B. B. Liu, S. Wen, Z. Wang, D. J. Hu, X. Z. Zhang, L. R. Song & J. T. Liu, 2011. Effects of inorganic arsenic on growth and microcystin production of a Microcystis strain isolated from an algal bloom in Dianchi Lake, China. Chinese Science Bulletin 56: 2337–2342.
Government of the Northwest Territories (GNWT), 2014. Trends in hunting and fishing in the NWT. Environment and natural resources: NWT state of the environment report, https://www.enr.gov.nt.ca/en/state-environment/182-trends-hunting-and-fishing-nwt.
Hallauer, J., X. Geng, H. C. Yang, J. Shen, K. J. Tsai & Z. Liu, 2016. The effect of chronic arsenic exposure in zebrafish. Zebrafish 13: 405–412.
Hann, B. J., 1982. Two new species of Eurycercus (Bullatifrons) from eastern North America (Chydoridae, Cladocera), taxonomy, ontogeny, and biology. Hydrobiologia 145: 5–17.
Harrell, F. E., 2020. Hmisc: Harrell miscellaneous. R package version 4.4-0 433, https://github.com/harrelfe/Hmisc.
Health Canada, 2017. Guidelines for Canadian drinking water quality – Summary Table. Water and Air Quality Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, www.healthcanada.gc.ca/waterquality.
Houben, A. J., R. D’Onofrio, S. V. Kokelj & J. M. Blais, 2016. Factors affecting elevated arsenic and methyl mercury concentrations in small shield lakes surrounding gold mines near the Yellowknife, NT, (Canada) region. PLoS ONE 11: e0150960.
Hutchinson, T. C., S. Aufreiter & R. G. V. Hancock, 1982. Arsenic pollution in the Yellowknife area from gold smelter activities. Journal of Radioanalytical Chemistry 71: 59–73.
Juggins, S. 2017. rioja: Analysis of Quaternary Science Data, R package version (0.9-21). (http://cran.r-project.org/package=rioja).
Jamieson, H. E., 2014. The legacy of arsenic contamination from mining and processing refractory gold ore at Giant Mine, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 79: 533–551.
Jamil, T. & C. J. F. ter Braak, 2013. Generalized linear mixed models can detect unimodal species-environment relationships. PeerJ 1: e95.
Jeppesen, E., P. Leavitt, L. De Meester & J. P. Jensen, 2001. Functional ecology and paleolimnology: Using cladoceran remains to reconstruct anthropogenic impact. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 191–198.
Jeziorski, A., B. Keller, A. M. Paterson, C. M. Greenaway & J. P. Smol, 2013. Aquatic ecosystem responses to rapid recovery from extreme acidification and metal contamination in lakes near Wawa, Ontario. Ecosystems 16: 209–223.
Jeziorski, A., B. Keller, R. D. Dyer, A. M. Paterson & J. P. Smol, 2015. Differences among modern-day and historical cladoceran communities from the “Ring of Fire” lake region of northern Ontario: Identifying responses to climate warming. Fundamental and Applied Limnology 186: 203–216.
Keller, W. B., J. Heneberry & B. A. Edwards, 2019. Recovery of acidified Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, lakes: a multi-decade synthesis and update. Environmental Reviews 27: 1–16.
Kerr, D. E. & P. Wilson, 2000. Preliminary surficial geology studies and mineral exploration considerations in the Yellowknife area, Northwest Territories. Geological Survey of Canada Natural Resources Canada, 2000-C3: 1–8.
Kimball, G., 1978. The effects of lesser known metals and one organic to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Daphnia magna. Department of Entomology, Fisheries and Wildlife, University of Minnesota.
Kokelj, S. V., T. C. Lantz, J. Kanigan, S. L. Smith & R. Coutts, 2009. Origin and polycyclic behaviour of tundra thaw slumps, Mackenzie Delta region, Northwest Territories, Canada. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 20: 173–184.
Korhola, A. & M. Rautio, 2001. Cladocera and other branchiopod crustaceans. In Smol, J. P., H. J. B. Birks & W. M. Last (eds), Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments, Vol. 4., Zoological Indicators Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht: 5–41.
Korosi, J. B. & J. P. Smol, 2012a. An illustrated guide to the identification of cladoceran subfossils from lake sediments in northeastern North America: part 1 – the Daphniidae, Leptodoridae, Bosminidae, Polyphemidae, Holopedidae, Sididae, and Macrothricidae. Journal of Paleolimnology 48: 571–586.
Korosi, J. B. & J. P. Smol, 2012b. An illustrated guide to the identification of cladoceran subfossils from lake sediments in northeastern North America: part 2 – the Chydoridae. Journal of Paleolimnology 48: 587–622.
Korosi, J. B., J. R. Thienpont, J. P. Smol & J. M. Blais, 2017a. Paleo-ecotoxicology: what can lake sediments tell us about ecosystem responses to environmental pollutants? Environmental Science & Technology 51: 9446–9457.
Korosi, J. B., J. R. Thienpont, J. P. Smol & J. M. Blais, 2017b. Paleolimnology can provide the missing long-term perspective in ecotoxicology research. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 13: 952–959.
Kurek, J., J. B. Korosi, A. Jeziorski & J. P. Smol, 2010. Establishing reliable minimum count sizes for cladoceran subfossils sampled from lake sediments. Journal of Paleolimnology 44: 603–612.
Labaj, A. L., J. Kurek, A. Jeziorski & J. P. Smol, 2015. Elevated metal concentrations inhibit biological recovery of Cladocera in previously acidified boreal lakes. Freshwater Biology 60: 347–359.
Laurén-Määttä, C., J. Hietala & M. Walls, 1997. Responses of Daphnia pulex populations to toxic cyanobacteria. Freshwater Biology 37: 635–647.
Leppänen, J. J., 2018. An overview of cladoceran studies conducted in mine water impacted lakes. International Aquatic Research 10: 207–221.
Leppänen, J., S. Siitonen & J. Weckström, 2017. The stability of cladoceran communities in sub-arctic NW Finnish Lapland lakes. Polar Biology 40: 2211–2223.
Leppänen, J., J. Weckström & A. Korhola, 2018. Mining pollution triggered a regime shift in the cladoceran community of Lake Kirkkojärvi, southern Finland. Journal of Paleolimnology 60: 413–425.
Li, Y., P. Xie, D. Zhao, T. Zhu, L. Guo & J. Zhang, 2016. Eutrophication strengthens the response of zooplankton to temperature changes in a high-altitude lake. Ecology and Evolution 6: 6690–6701.
Little, A. J., B. Sivarajah, C. Frendo, D. D. Sprague, J. P. Smol & J. C. Vermaire, 2020. The impacts of century-old, arsenic-rich mine tailings on multi-trophic level biological assemblages in lakes from Cobalt (Ontario, Canada). Science of the Total Environment 709: 136212.
Liu, J., Y. Lu, Q. Wu, R. A. Goyer & M. P. Waalkes, 2008. Mineral arsenicals in traditional medicines: orpiment, realgar, and arsenolite. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 326: 363–368.
Mackenzie Valley Land and Water Board, 2015. Staff Report: Proposed revisions to the Surveillance Network Program (SNP). Yellowknife, NT, Canada.
Mattson, M. P., 2008. Hormesis defined. Ageing Research Reviews 7: 1–7.
Megard, R. O., 1967. Three new species of Alona (Cladocera, Chydoridae) from the United States. Internationale Revue der gesamten Hydrobiologie und Hydrographie 52: 37–50.
Moiseenko, T. I., A. N. Sharov, O. I. Vandish, L. P. Kudryavtseva, N. A. Gashkina & C. Rose, 2009. Long-term modification of Arctic lake ecosystems: reference condition, degradation under toxic impacts and recovery (case study Imandra Lakes, Russia). Limnologica 39: 1–13.
Nevalainen, L., 2011. Intra-lake heterogeneity of sedimentary cladoceran (Crustacea) assemblages forced by local hydrology. Hydrobiologia 676: 9–22.
Okamoto, A., M. Yamamuro & N. Tatarazako, 2015. Acute toxicity of 50 metals to Daphnia magna. Journal of Applied Toxicology 35: 824–830.
Oksanen, J., F. G. Blanchet, M. Friendly, P. Legendre, D. McGlinn, P. R. Minchin, R. B. O’Hara, G. L. Simpson, P. Solymos, M.H.H Stevens, E. Szoecs & H. Wagner, 2019. Package “vegan”. Community Ecology Package. R package version 3.4.0 1–296.
Palmer, M. J., J. M. Galloway, H. E. Jamieson, R. T. Patterson, H. Falck & S. V Kokelj, 2015. The concentration of arsenic in lake waters of the Yellowknife area. NWT Open File 2015-06.
Palmer, M. J., J. Chételat, M. Richardson, H. E. Jamieson & J. M. Galloway, 2019. Seasonal variation of arsenic and antimony in surface waters of small subarctic lakes impacted by legacy mining pollution near Yellowknife, NT, Canada. Science of the Total Environment 684: 326–339.
Pajunen, V. I. & I. Pajunen, 2007. Habitat characteristics contributing to local occupancy and habitat use in rock pool Daphnia metapopulations. Hydrobiologia 592: 291–302.
Passino, D. R. & A. J. Novak, 1984. Toxicity of arsenate and DDT to the cladoceran Bosmina longirostris. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 33: 325–329.
Pociecha, A., A. Z. Wojtal, E. Szarek-Gwiazda, A. Cieplok, D. Ciszewski & A. Kownacki, 2019. Response of Cladocera fauna to heavy metal pollution, based on sediments from subsidence ponds downstream of a mine discharge (S. Poland). Water 11: 810.
Radzikowski, J., K. Krupińska & M. Ślusarczyk, 2018. Different thermal stimuli initiate hatching of Daphnia diapausing eggs originating from lakes and temporary waters. Limnology 19: 81–88.
Roeselers, G., M. C. M. V. Loosdrecht & G. Muyzer, 2008. Phototrophic biofilms and their potential applications. Journal of Applied Phycology 20: 227–235.
Rose, N. L., S. D. Turner, H. Yang, C. Yang, C. Hall & S. Harrad, 2018. Palaeotoxicity: reconstructing the risk of multiple sedimentary pollutants to freshwater organisms. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 40: 1667–1682.
Rühland, K. & J. P. Smol, 2005. Diatom shifts as evidence for recent Subarctic warming in a remote tundra lake, NWT, Canada. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 226: 1–16.
Rühland, K., A. Priesnitz & J. P. Smol, 2003. Paleolimnological evidence from diatoms for recent environmental changes in 50 lakes across Canadian arctic treeline. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 35: 110–123.
Rühland, K., A. M. Paterson & J. P. Smol, 2008. Hemispheric-scale patterns of climate-related shifts in planktonic diatoms from North American and European lakes. Global Change Biology 14: 2740–2745.
Rühland, K., K. Hargan, A. Jeziorski, A. Paterson, W. Keller & J. Smol, 2014. A multi-trophic exploratory survey of recent environmental changes using lake sediments in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Ontario, Canada. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 46: 139–158.
Rühland, K. M., A. M. Paterson & J. P. Smol, 2015. Diatom assemblage responses to warming: reviewing the evidence. Journal of Paleolimnology 54: 1–35.
Sandlos, J. & A. Keeling, 2016. Toxic legacies, slow violence, and environmental injustice at Giant Mine, Northwest Territories. The Northern Review 42: 7–21.
Saulnier-Talbot, E., 2016. Paleolimnology as a tool to achieve environmental sustainability in the anthropocene: an overview. Geosciences 6: 26.
Sivarajah, B., 2020. Examining the long-term ecological consequences of gold mining operations, urbanization, and climatic changes on sub-arctic lakes near Yellowknife (Northwest Territories, Canada) using diatoms as paleoenvironmental indicators. PhD thesis, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, https://qspace.library.queensu.ca/handle/1974/28568.
Sivarajah, B., J. B. Korosi, J. M. Blais & J. P. Smol, 2019. Multiple environmental variables influence diatom assemblages across an arsenic gradient in 33 subarctic lakes near abandoned gold mines. Hydrobiologia 841: 133–151.
Sivarajah, B., C. L. Cheney, M. Perrett, L. E. Kimpe, J. M. Blais & J. P. Smol, 2020. Regional gold mining activities and recent climate warming alter diatom assemblages in deep sub-Arctic lakes. Polar Biology 43: 305–317.
Smedley, P. & D. Kinniburgh, 2002. A review of the source, behaviour and distribution of arsenic in natural waters. Applied Geochemistry 17: 517–568.
Smol, J. P., 2008. Pollution of lakes and rivers: a paleoenvironmental perspective. Blackwell Publishers.
Statistics Canada, 2017. Yellowknife [Population centre], Northwest Territories and Northwest Territories [Territory] (table). Census Profile. 2016 Census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-316-X2016001. Ottawa. Released November 29, 2017. https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/index.cfm?Lang=E
Stewart, E. M., K. E. Hargan, B. Sivarajah, L. E. Kimpe, J. M. Blais & J. P. Smol, 2018. A paleoenvironmental study tracking eutrophication, mining pollution, and climate change in Niven Lake, the first sewage lagoon of Yellowknife (Northwest territories). Arctic 71: 201–217.
Suhendrayatna, S., A. Ohki & S. Maeda, 1999. Arsenic accumulation, transformation and tolerance on freshwater Daphnia magna. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 72: 1–11.
Sweetman, J. N., E. LaFace, K. M. Rühland & J. P. Smol, 2008. Evaluating the response of Cladocera to recent environmental changes in lakes from the central Canadian Arctic treeline region. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 40: 584–591.
Tanamal, C., J. M. Blais & L. Chan, 2018. Arsenic Bioconcentration in Freshwater Fish Species in a pristine lake in Yellowknife, NT. ISEE Conference Abstracts 2018.
Tanamal, C., J. M. Blais, E. Yumvihoze & H. M. Chan, 2020. Health risk assessment of inorganic arsenic exposure through fish consumption in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. 1–22.
Thienpont, J. R., J. B. Korosi, E. S. Cheng, K. Deasley, M. F. J. Pisaric & J. P. Smol, 2015. Recent climate warming favours more specialized cladoceran taxa in western Canadian Arctic lakes. Journal of Biogeography 42: 1553–1565.
Thienpont, J. R., J. B. Korosi, K. E. Hargan, T. Williams, D. Eickmeyer, L. E. Kimpe, M. J. Palmer, J. P. Smol & J. M. Blais, 2016. Multi-trophic level response to extreme metal contamination from gold mining in a subarctic lake. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological 283: 20161125.
Tremel, B., S. E. Frey, N. D. Yan, K. M. Somers & T. W. Pawson, 2000. Habitat specificity of littoral Chydoridae (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Anomopoda) in Plastic Lake, Ontario, Canada. Hydrobiologia 432: 195–205.
Vincent, W. F., I. Laurion, R. Pienitz & K. M. Walter Anthony, 2012. Climate impacts on Arctic lake ecosystems In Goldman, C. R., M. Kumagai & R. D. Robarts (eds), Climatic Change and Global Warming of Inland Waters: Impacts and Mitigation for Ecosystems and Societies. 27–42.
Waaijers, S. L., J. Hartmann, A. M. Soeter, R. Helmus, S. A. E. Kools, P. de Voogt, W. Admiraal, J. R. Parsons & M. H. S. Kraak, 2013. Toxicity of new generation flame retardants to Daphnia magna. Science of the Total Environment 463–464: 1042–1048.
Wagemann, R., N. B. Snow, D. M. Rosenberg & A. Lutz, 1978. Arsenic in sediments, water and aquatic biota from lakes in the vicinity of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 7: 169–191.
Walseng, B., G. Halvorsen & S. E. Sloreid, 2001. Littoral microcrustaceans (Cladocera and Copepoda) as indices of recovery of a limed water system. Hydrobiologia 450: 159–172.
Walseng, B., N. D. Yan & A. Kristin Schartau, 2003. Littoral microcrustacean (Cladocera and Copepoda) indicators of acidification in Canadian Shield lakes. Ambio 32: 208–213.
Walseng, B., N. D. Yan, T. W. Pawson & O. Skarpaas, 2008. Acidity versus habitat structure as regulators of littoral microcrustacean assemblages. Freshwater Biology 53: 290–303.
Wetzel, R. G., 2001. Planktonic communities: zooplankton and their interactions with fish. Limnology. Academic Press: 395–488.
Winegardner, A. K., N. Salter, S. Aebischer, R. Pienitz, A. M. Derry, B. Wing, B. E. Beisner & I. Gregory-Eaves, 2017. Cladoceran diversity dynamics in lakes from a northern mining region: responses to multiple stressors characterized by alpha and beta diversity. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 74: 1654–1667.
Wolfe, S., 1998. Living with frozen ground – a field guide to permafrost in Yellowknife. Northwest Territories, Geological Survey of Canada.
Xu, S., P. D. N. Hebert, A. A. Kotov & M. E. Cristescu, 2009. The noncosmopolitanism paradigm of freshwater zooplankton: insights from the global phylogeography of the predatory cladoceran Polyphemus pediculus (Linnaeus, 1761) (Crustacea, Onychopoda). Molecular Ecology 18: 5161–5179.
Yan, N. D., R. Girard, J. H. Heneberry, W. B. Keller, J. M. Gunn & P. J. Dillon, 2004. Recovery of copepod, but not cladoceran, zooplankton from severe and chronic effects of multiple stressors. Ecology Letters 7: 452–460.
We thank David Eickmeyer, Joshua Thienpont, Mija Azdajic, Claudia Tanamal, and Martin Pothier for field work assistance. Logistical support and advice by Mike Palmer (Aurora Research Institute) are also greatly appreciated. This work was funded by a Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) Strategic Grant to JMB and JPS (Grant # STPGP 462955-14), the Banting Postdoctoral Fellowship program (JBK) as well as Northern Scientific Training Program grants to CLC and BS. Helicopter support for lake sediment coring was provided by the Polar Continental Shelf Program (JMB).
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Handling editor: Jasmine Saros
About this article
Cite this article
Persaud, A.A., Cheney, C.L., Sivarajah, B. et al. Regional changes in Cladocera (Branchiopoda, Crustacea) assemblages in subarctic (Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada) lakes impacted by historic gold mining activities. Hydrobiologia (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-021-04534-9
- Legacy contaminants