Table 3 MANCOVA of different effects on lower beak shape by climatic factors of Ommastrephes bartramii; Z = effect size (Collyer et al., 2015); S-climate = small-scale climate (El Niño and La Niña); L-climate = large-scale climate (cold PDO and warm PDO)

From: Interannual variability of body size and beak morphology of the squid Ommastrephes bartramii in the North Pacific Ocean in the context of climate change

Model parameters df SS MS Rsq F Z P
Size 1 0.0382 0.0381 0.0118 6.1002 4.9703 0.001*
S-climate 1 0.0474 0.0473 0.0147 7.5702 5.4707 0.001*
L-climate 1 0.0354 0.0354 0.0110 5.6569 4.7778 0.001*
sex 1 0.0048 0.0047 0.0015 0.7621 0.4484 0.668 ns
Size × S-climate 1 0.0155 0.0154 0.0048 2.4725 2.6025 0.006*
Size × L-climate 1 0.0132 0.0132 0.0041 2.1096 2.1473 0.02*
S-climate × L-climate 1 0.0226 0.0226 0.0070 3.6133 3.603 0.001*
Size × S-climate × L-climate 1 0.0076 0.0076 0.0023 1.2148 0.8052 0.199 ns
Residuals 485 3.0336 0.0062     
Total 493 3.2181      
  1. ns Not significant
  2. *P significant at α = 0.05