Table 2 MANCOVA of different effects on upper beak shape by climatic factors of Ommastrephes bartramii; Z = effect size (Collyer et al., 2015); S-climate = small-scale climate (El Niño and La Niña); L-climate = large-scale climate (cold PDO and warm PDO)

From: Interannual variability of body size and beak morphology of the squid Ommastrephes bartramii in the North Pacific Ocean in the context of climate change

Model parameters df SS MS Rsq F Z P
Size 1 0.0332 0.0332 0.0167 8.8418 5.9358 0.001*
S-climate 1 0.0129 0.0129 0.0065 3.4277 4.0074 0.001*
L-climate 1 0.0607 0.0607 0.0306 16.1733 8.1678 0.001*
sex 1 0.0155 0.0155 0.0078 0.1213 0.5091 0.351 ns
Size × S-climate 1 0.0064 0.0064 0.0032 1.7133 1.7594 0.019*
Size × L-climate 1 0.0052 0.0052 0.0026 1.3887 1.2900 0.098 ns
S-climate × L-climate 1 0.0236 0.0236 0.0119 6.2865 5.6279 0.001*
Size × S-climate × L-climate 1 0.0051 0.0051 0.0026 1.3746 1.1993 0.111 ns
Residuals 485 1.8215 0.0037     
Total 493 1.9843      
  1. ns Not significant
  2. *P significant at α = 0.05