Non-native fish species in Neotropical freshwaters: how did they arrive, and where did they come from?
The Neotropical region has the greatest taxonomic and functional diversity of fish in the world. However, this biodiversity has been threatened by the introduction of non-native species. Therefore, we present a systematic review of the literature concerning the introduction of non-native fish species in Neotropical freshwaters. We examine the origins of non-native fish species, as well as the invaded ecoregions and introduction vectors. Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmo trutta, Cichla kelberi, and Oreochromis niloticus were the most frequent introduced fish species and rivers and reservoirs were the most studied freshwater ecosystems. Impoundments, aquarium trade, sport fishing, and aquaculture were recorded as the main vectors for the introduction of non-native fish species. Most of the studies were conducted in Brazil. The Upper Parana ecoregion exhibited the largest number of non-native fish species, of which the majority originated from the Lower Parana ecoregion. We noticed that the origins of non-native fish species are linked to their introduction vectors, as several non-native fish species arrive from areas near to where they are introduced, mainly by impoundment and sport fishing. On the other hand, species from regions outside the Neotropics are especially introduced by aquarium trade and aquaculture.
KeywordsExotic fish species Neotropical realm Inland water Introduction vector Origin of non-native species
We thank Augusto Frota (PEA/UEM) for making the maps. R. Ruaro and D. Cavalli are grateful to the “Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico” (CNPq/Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações) for their scholarships. A.C.A. Eichelberger, R.F. Bogoni, and A.D. Lira are grateful to the “Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior” (CAPES/Ministério da Educação) for their scholarships.
- Abell, R., M. L. Thieme, C. Revenga, M. Bryer, M. Kottelat, N. Bogutskaya, B. Coad, N. Mandrak, S. C. Balderas, W. Bussing, M. L. J. Stiassny, P. Skelton, G. R. Allen, P. Unmack, A. Naseka, R. Ng, N. Sindorf, J. Robertson, E. Armijo, J. V. Higgins, T. J. Heibel, E. Wikramanayake, D. Olson, H. L. López, R. E. Reis, J. G. Lundberg, M. H. S. Pérez & P. Petry, 2008. Freshwater ecoregions of the world: a new map of biogeographic units for freshwater biodiversity conservation. BioScience 58: 403–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Agostinho, A. A., L. Rodrigues, L. C. Gomes, S. M. Thomaz & L. E. Miranda, 2004. Structure and functioning of the Paraná River and its floodplain: LTER-Site 6-(PELD-Sítio 6). EDUEM, Maringá.Google Scholar
- Arlinghaus, R., S. J. Cooke, J. Lyman, D. Policansky, A. Schwab, C. Suski, S. G. Sutton & E. B. Thorstad, 2007. Understanding the complexity of catch-and-release in recreational fishing: an integrative synthesis of global knowledge from historical, ethical, social, and biological perspectives. Reviews in Fisheries Science 15: 75–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Azevedo-Santos, V. M., P. M. Fearnside, C. S. Oliveira, A. A. Padial, F. M. Pelicice, D. P. Lima Jr., D. Simberloff, T. E. Lovejoy, A. L. B. Magalhães, M. L. Orsi, A. A. Agostinho, F. A. Esteves, P. S. Pompeu, W. F. Laurance, M. Petrere Jr., R. P. Mormul & J. R. S. Vitule, 2017. Removing the abyss between conservation science and policy decisions in Brazil. Biodiversity and Conservation 26: 1745–1752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bartley, D. M., 2011. Aquaculture. In Simberloff, D. & M. Rejmánek (eds), Encyclopedia of Biological Invasions. University of California Press, Led. London: 27–32.Google Scholar
- Benavente, J. N., L. W. Seeb, J. E. Seeb, I. Arismendi, C. E. Hernández, G. Gajardo, R. Galleguillo, M. I. Cádiz, S. S. Musleh & D. Gomez-Uchida, 2015. Temporal genetic variance and propagule-driven genetic structure characterize naturalized rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from a Patagonian Lake impacted by trout farming. PLoS ONE 10: e0142040.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Dudgeon, D., A. H. Arthington, M. O. Gessner, Z. Kawabata, D. J. Knowler, C. Lévêque, R. J. Naiman, A. H. Prieur-Richard, D. Soto, M. L. Stiassny & C. A. Sullivan, 2006. Freshwater biodiversity: importance, threats, status and conservation challenges. Biological Reviews 81: 163–182.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Eschemeyer, W. N. & J. Fong, 2017. Species by family/subfamily in the catalog of fishes. California Academy of sciences, San Francisco. [electronic version: http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/SpeciesByFamily.asp]. Accessed 31 Jan 2017.
- I3N Brazil Invasive Alien Species Database, 2017. http://i3n.institutohorus.org.br/www. The Horus Institute for Environmental Conservation and Development. Accessed 06 Sep 2017.
- International Union for Conservation of Nature-IUCN, 2017. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1 [http://www.iucnredlist.org]. Accessed 02 Feb 2017.
- Jackson, D. A., P. R. Peres-Neto & J. D. Olden, 2001. What controls who is where in freshwater fish communities – the roles of biotic, abiotic, and spatial factors. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58: 157–170.Google Scholar
- Lewinsohn, T. M. & P. I. Prado, 2005. Quantas espécies há no Brasil? Megadiversidade 1: 36–42.Google Scholar
- Lockwood, J. L., P. Cassey & T. Blackburn, 2005. The role of propagule pressure in explaining species invasions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20: 223–28 Magalhães, A. L. B. & C. M. Jacobi, 2013. Invasion risks posed by ornamental freshwater fish trade to southeastern Brazilian rivers. Neotropical Ichthyology 11: 433–441.Google Scholar
- Magalhães, A. L. B. & C. M. Jacobi, 2017. Colorful invasion in permissive Neotropical ecosystems: establishment of ornamental non-native poeciliids of the genera Poecilia/Xiphophorus (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) and management alternatives. Neotropical Ichthyology 15: e160094.Google Scholar
- Padial, A. A., A. A. Agostinho, V. M. Azevedo-Santos, F. A. Frehse, D. P. Lima Jr., A. L. B. Magalhães, R. P. Mormul, F. M. Pelicice, L. A. V. Bezerra, M. L. Orsi, M. Petrere Jr. & J. R. S. Vitule, 2017. The ‘‘Tilapia Law’’ encouraging non-native fish threatens Amazonian River basins. Biodiversity and Conservation 26: 243–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ribeiro, V. R., P. R. L. da Silva, É. A. Gubiani, L. Faria, V. S. Daga & J. R. S. Vitule, 2017. Imminent threat of the predator fish invasion Salminus brasiliensis in a Neotropical ecoregion: eco-vandalism masked as an environmental project. Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation 15: 132–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ruiz, G., J. Carlton, E. Grosholz & A. H. Hines, 1997. Global invasions of marine and estuarine habitats by non-indigenous species: mechanisms, extent and consequences. Integrative and Comparative Biology 37: 621–632.Google Scholar
- Simberloff, D. & M. Rejmánek, 2011. Encyclopedia of biological invasions. University of California Press, California.Google Scholar
- Simberloff, D., J. L. Martin, P. Genovesi, V. Maris, D. A. Wardle, J. Aronson, F. Courchamp, B. Galil, E. García-Berthou, M. Pascal, P. Pyšek, R. Sousa, E. Tabacchi & M. Vilá, 2013. Impacts of biological invasions: what’s what and the way forward. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 28: 58–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tagliaferro, M., I. Arismendi, J. Lancelotti & M. Pascual, 2015. A natural experiment of dietary overlap between introduced Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and native Puyen (Galaxias maculatus) in the Santa Cruz River, Patagonia. Environmental Biology of Fishes 98: 1311–1325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Vitule, J. R. S., H. Bornatowski & C. A. Freire, 2014. Extralimital introductions of Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816) (Teleostei, Characidae) for sport fishing purposes: a growing challenge for the conservation of biodiversity in Neotropical aquatic ecosystems. BioInvasions Records 3: 291–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar