Coexistence between native and nonnative species: the invasion process and adjustments in distribution through time for congeneric piranhas in a Neotropical floodplain
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Our goal was to report the progress of Serrasalmus marginatus invasion process in the upper Paraná River floodplain by exploring its mechanisms and coexistence with its native congeneric Serrasalmus maculatus. We described their temporal abundance variations; nonnative species’ predominance in specific habitats; recruitment effectiveness for both species and its spatial variations; spatial organization pattern of native and nonnative species; and how their abundance is related to their co-occurrence. Abundance data encompassed 26 years after the invasion, while the proportion analyses between the species occurred on a monthly basis and in different environments, and the spatial organization pattern was assessed using C-score index. Results showed that the population of nonnative species had a fast increase along the early years followed by a decrease in the population of the native species. Recently, their proportion seems to be stabilizing, apparently resulting from a differentiation on the use of resources. The species are allowed by the spatial organization pattern to coexist in the floodplain, despite their variable co-occurrence in different environments. It is possible to state the persistence of native species in the floodplain at lower abundances in relation to the nonnative species as well as when occupying different habitats.
KeywordsSerrasalmus Co-occurrence Pre-adaptation hypothesis Spatial organization pattern Biological invasions
The authors would like to thank the Núcleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia, Ictiologia e Aquicultura (Nupélia) of the Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM) for providing the samplings and logistical support; projects Pesquisas Ecológicas de Longa Duração (PELD) and Programa de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico e Ciências Ambientais (PADCT/CIAMB) for delivering the data.The authors would also like to thank the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) for having granted the scholarship to ACR, HSS, and MTB, as well as Hugo José Message and Daniel Alves dos Santos for remarkable improvements to the earliest version of this manuscript. The authors also thank S. M. Thomaz and the two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments.
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