Aspects of resilience of polar sea ice algae to changes in their environment
Sea ice algae are primary producers of the ice-covered oceans in both polar regions. Changes in sea ice distribution are potentially altering exposure to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) wavelengths of light. Incubations using monospecific cultures of common species from the Ross Sea, Antarctic Peninsula and Arctic Ocean were carried out at ecologically relevant light levels during periods of 7 days to examine tolerance to conditions likely to be faced during sea ice thinning and melt. Algal responses were assessed using chlorophyll fluorescence techniques and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Quantum yields of cultures incubated in the dark and at ambient light did not differ. At higher light levels, the Ross Sea and Arctic cultures showed no significant change in photosynthetic health. Cultures from the Antarctic Peninsula showed a significant decrease. Antarctic cultures showed no detectable changes in SOD activity. Arctic culture showed dynamic changes, initially increasing, then decreasing to the end of the study. The general lack of significant changes signals the need for further parameters to be assessed during such experiments. The coupling between measured parameters appeared to protect photosynthetic health, even though significant effects have been detected in other studies when subjected to PAR or UV-B alone.
KeywordsSea ice algae Photoprotection Stress Ultraviolet-B Ross Sea Antarctic Peninsula Arctic Ocean
The authors acknowledge support from VUW Grant 100241, and FRST Grant VICX0706. MAF permits 2009037596 and 2010040450 were used to transport cultures and samples from Antarctica to New Zealand. The authors thank Antarctica New Zealand for logistic support in the field. Dr. Claire Hughes and Associate Professor Else Hegspeth are thanked for the provision of cultures originally obtained from the Antarctic Peninsula and Arctic Ocean. Two anonymous reviewers are thanked for constructive comments. PC is supported by NERC core funding to the BAS Biodiversity, Evolution and Adaptation Programme. This paper also contributes to the SCAR AnT-ERA International Science Programme.
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