Effect of temperature and food type on asexual reproduction in Aurelia sp.1 polyps
Environmental factors such as temperature and food type affect the rate of asexual reproduction of jellyfish at the polyp stage. Combinations of three temperatures (10, 15, and 20°C) and four food treatments (Prorocentrum donghaiense, Skeletonema costatum, Artemia sp. nauplii, and no food) were established to examine the asexual reproduction strategy of Aurelia sp.1. The results allowed us to reject two null hypotheses: no effect of temperature and no effect of food. A change from 20 to 15 or 10°C induced polyps to release ephyrae when food was present, while polyps without food did not strobilate. Polyps with Artemia sp. nauplii as prey produced more polyps through buds and podocysts, as well as more ephyrae through strobilation. At 20°C, the mortality rates of polyps exceeded 50%, except for those served by Artemia sp. nauplii. The number of polyps increased rapidly with Artemia sp. nauplii as prey. We conclude that when animal prey is limited, plants can serve as a nutrient source and satisfy the energy requirements for polyps at lower temperatures (10 or 15°C). Phytoplankton cannot provide adequate nutrition to polyps at higher temperature (20°). Abundant animal prey and suitable temperatures are essential conditions for polyps to strobilate and release ephyrae, leading to jellyfish blooms.
KeywordsAurelia sp.1 Temperature Food type Asexual reproduction Bloom
Assistance given by the members of the Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences is greatly appreciated. We thank the anonymous referees for their constructive criticisms. This research was supported by National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program No. 2011CB403601), NSFC-Shandong Joint Fund for Marine Science Research Centers (Grant No. U1406403), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41106133).
- Condon, R. H., W. M. Graham, C. M. Duarte, K. A. Pitt, C. H. Lucas, S. H. D. Haddock, K. R. Sutherland, K. L. Robinson, M. N. Dawson, M. B. Decker, C. E. Mills, J. E. Purcell, A. Malej, H. Mianzan, S. I. Uye, S. Gelcich & L. P. Madin, 2012. Questioning the rise of gelatinous zooplankton in the world’s oceans. Bioscience 62(2): 160–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dawson, M. N., A. Sen Gupta & M. H. England, 2005. Coupled biophysical global ocean model and molecular genetic analyses identify multiple introductions of cryptogenic species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102(34): 11968–11973.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dong, Z. J., D. Y. Liu, Y. J. Wang, B. P. Di, X. K. Song & Y. J. Shi, 2012. A report on a Moon Jellyfish Aurelia aurita bloom in Sishili Bay, Northern Yellow Sea of China in 2009. Aquat Ecosyst Health 15(2): 161–167.Google Scholar
- Ki, J. S., D. S. Hwang, K. Shin, W. D. Yoon, D. Lim, Y. S. Kang, Y. Lee & J. S. Lee, 2008. Recent moon jelly (Aurelia sp.1) blooms in Korean coastal waters suggest global expansion: examples inferred from mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS-5.8S rDNA sequences. ICES Journal of Marine Science 65(3): 443–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kramp, P. L., 1961. Synopsis of Medusae of World. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 40(Nov):1–469.Google Scholar
- Malej, A., T. Kogovsek, A. Ramsak & L. Catenacci, 2012. Blooms and population dynamics of moon jellyfish in the northern Adriatic. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 53(3): 337–342.Google Scholar
- Michael, T., A. Villanueva, K. Joshi & S. Priya, 2013. Physical modeling of Mastigias papua feeding structures and simulation of their effect on bell stress and kinematics. Proc Spie 8686 doi:Unsp 868608 doi: 10.1117/12.2009933.
- Regula, C., S. P. Colin, J. H. Costello et al., 2009. Prey selection mechanism of ambush-foraging hydromedusae. Marine Ecology Progress Series 374: 135–144.Google Scholar
- Sarno, D., W. H. C. F. Kooistra, S. Balzano, P. E. Hargraves & A. Zingone, 2007. Diversity in the genus Skeletonema (Bacillariophyceae): III. Phylogenetic position and morphological variability of Skeletonema costatum and Skeletonema grevillei, with the description of Skeletonema ardens sp nov. J Phycol 43(1): 156–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wang, Y. T., S. Sun & C. L. Li, 2012. Effects of temperature and food on asexual reproduction of the scyphozoan, Aurelia sp.1. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica 43: 900–904. (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
- Zheng, S., X. X. Sun & S. Sun, 2012. The grazing of Aurelia sp.1 on Skeletonema costatum and Prorocentrum donghaiense. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica 43: 446–450. (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
- Zhou, M. J., Z. L. Shen & R. C. Yu, 2008. Responses of a coastal phytoplankton community to increased nutrient input from the Changjiang (Yangtze) River. Continental Shelf Research 28(12): 1483–1489.Google Scholar