Succession dynamics of aquatic lake vegetation after restoration measures: increased stability after 6 years of development
- 412 Downloads
For 7 years, development of submerged vegetation was monitored after fish stock removal during the final phase of a restoration program in the shallow, 2.1 km2 Lake Loenderveen (The Netherlands). The lake shifted from a turbid, phytoplankton-dominated state, to a clear, macrophyte-dominated state. Vegetation development was very dynamic during years 1–5. Dominance of Elodea nuttallii (Planchon) St. John and Najas marina L. alternated in the initial few years and separate development of Chara species was recorded locally. Elodea nuttallii achieved the highest coverage in the 5th year, but part of the vegetation collapsed in the 6th year. In year 7, the system had recovered and became more stable. The dynamic developments, and spatial differences, are possibly explained by waterfowl interactions, soil nutrient status, and differences in growth form strategies of the species. It was concluded that the trophic level of the lake water was low enough for lake vegetation to recover following removal of most of the fish stock, but stability of the clear water state has increased considerably only after 6 years of development.
KeywordsRestoration Biomanipulation Lake Macrophyte Nutrients Fish Waterfowl
The authors would like to thank colleagues from Het Waterlaboratorium for the analysis of the numerous samples provided, Rob Leewis and Erika Voortman for assistance with the field work, four anonymous referees for very helpful comments on an earlier draft of this manuscript, and Berend Pot and Jon Matthews for their help in improving the English text.
- Best, E. P. H., D. de Vries & A. Reins, 1984. The macrophytes in the Loosdrecht Lakes: a story of their decline in the course of eutrophication. Verhandlungen Der Internationale Vereinigung Für Limnologie 22: 868–875.Google Scholar
- European Commission, 2000. Directive 2000/60/EC. Establishing a Framework for Community Action in the Field of Water Policy: 72 pp.Google Scholar
- Grime, J. P., 1979. Plant Strategies and Vegetation Processes. Wiley, Chichester: 222 pp.Google Scholar
- Hosper, H., 1997. Clearing Lakes: an ecosystem approach to the restoration and management of shallow lakes in The Netherlands. Thesis Wageningen University: 168 pp.Google Scholar
- Janse, J. H., 2005. Model studies on the eutrophication of shallow lakes and ditches. Thesis Wageningen University: 376 pp.Google Scholar
- Josefsson, M. 2011. NOBANIS—Invasive Species Fact Sheet—Elodea canadensis, Elodea nuttallii and Elodea callitrichoides—NOBANIS www.nobanis.org. Date of Access 28 November 2012: 12 pp.
- MacArthur, R. H. & E. O. Wilson, 1967. The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton: 203 pp.Google Scholar
- Poelen, M. D. M., L. J. L. van den Berg, G. N. J. ter Heerdt, R. Bakkum, A. J. P. Smolders, N. G. Jaarsma, R. J. Brederveld & L. P. M. Lamers, 2012. Under water soil management in the Netherlands [In Dutch, original title: WaterBODEMbeheer in Nederland.] B-WARE Research Centre, Nijmegen; Report 2012.18: 141 pp.Google Scholar
- Portielje, R. & D. van der Molen, 1997. Trend analysis on the state of eutrofication of Dutch Lakes, report I of the forth enquiry on eutrofication [In Dutch, original title: Trendanalyse eutrofiëringstoestand van de Nederlandse meren en plassen, deelrapport I voor de Vierde Eutrofiëringsenquête]. RIZA-report 97.060, Lelystad: 90 pp.Google Scholar
- Pot, R., 2010. State and Trends in Water Quality of Dutch Lakes [In Dutch, original title: Toestand en trends in de waterkwaliteit van Nederlandse meren en plassen]. Roelf Pot, Oosterhesselen: 113 pp.Google Scholar
- Scheffer, M., 1998. Ecology of Shallow Lakes. Chapman and Hall, London: 357 pp.Google Scholar
- Simpson, D. A., 1990. Displacement of Elodea canadensis Michx. by Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) St. John in the British Isles. Watsonia 18: 173–177.Google Scholar
- Søndergaard, M., T. L. Lauridsen, E. Jeppesen & L. Bruun, 1997. Macrophyte-waterfowl interactions: tracking a variable resource and the impact of herbivory on plant growth. In Jeppesen, M., M. Sondergaard, M. Sondergaard & K. Christoffersen (eds), The Structuring Role of Submerged Macrophytes in Lakes. Springer, Berlin: 298–306.Google Scholar
- Van Raam, J. C., 1998. Handbook Charophytes [In Dutch, original title: Handboek Kranswieren]. Chara Boek, Hilversum: 229.Google Scholar