, Volume 728, Issue 1, pp 125–139 | Cite as

Towards a better understanding of small scale distribution of littoral age-0 fish in a deep-valley reservoir: day or night surveys?

  • M. Kratochvíl
  • M. Vašek
  • J. Peterka
  • V. Draštík
  • M. Čech
  • T. Jůza
  • M. Muška
  • J. Matěna
  • J. Kubečka
Primary Research Paper


The effect of diel period and littoral habitats on the distribution of age-0 fish was tested in a deep-valley reservoir using boat-modified point abundance sampling by electrofishing (PASE). Day and night samplings unveiled differences in abundance of age-0 fish while recognizing most of the commonly present age-0 fish species in the littoral zone. Night survey provided better information about the abundance of age-0 fish since most species appeared in higher numbers at night. Alternatively, night sampling underestimated bleak (Alburnus alburnus) and gudgeon (Gobio gobio), which were predominantly found in the littoral zone in the daytime. The structure of the age-0 fish assemblage was determined primarily by the characteristics of the littoral habitats, i.e. slope steepness and structure, and three different patterns of habitat use were detected among the fish species. To obtain the most comprehensive assessment of a littoral age-0 fish assemblage and to register all species-specific patterns of habitat use, it is necessary that all littoral habitats in the reservoir are sampled during both day and night periods. The boat-modified PASE could be also used as a standard monitoring tool for routine age-0 fish sampling under difficult conditions of steep-sloped shorelines in large inland waterbodies.


Slope steepness Structured habitat Juveniles Night Electrofishing 



The authors would like to thank Mr. Zdeněk Prachař and other colleagues, who helped the former with the sampling during a hard field season and spent several sleepless nights doing a really tough job. Leslie Tse, Dr. Mary Morris and Dr. Daniel Ricard kindly corrected the English version. The authors thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments. The study was financially supported by project nos. 42/2006/P-BF, CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0204 (CEKOPOT) co-financed by the European Social Fund, and the state budget of the Czech Republic.


  1. Baumgartner, L. J., I. G. Stuart & B. P. Zampatti, 2008. Determining diel variation in fish assemblages downstream of three weirs in a regulated lowland rivers. Journal of Fish Biology 72: 218–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bohl, E., 1980. Diel pattern of pelagic distribution and feeding in planktivorous fish. Oecologia 44: 368–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Britton, R. H. & M. E. Moser, 1982. Size specific predation by herons and its effect on the sex ratio of natural populations of the mosquito fish Gambusia affinis Baird and Girard. Oecologia 53: 146–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bryan, M. D. & D. L. Scarnecchia, 1992. Species richness, composition, and abundance of fish larvae and juveniles inhabiting natural and developed shorelines of a glacial Iowa Lake. Environmental Biology of Fishes 35: 329–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Copp, G. H., 2010. Patterns of diel activity and species richness in young and small fishes of European streams: a review of 20 years of point abundance sampling by electrofishing. Fish and Fisheries 11: 439–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Copp, G. H. & P. Jurajda, 1993. Do small riverine fish move inshore at night? Journal of Fish Biology 43: 229–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Copp, G. H. & P. Jurajda, 1999. Size-structured diel use of river banks by fish. Aquatic Sciences 61: 75–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Disler, N. N. & S. A. Smirnov, 1977. Sensory organs of the lateral-line canal system in two percids and their importance in behavior. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 34: 1492–1503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Duncan, A. & J. Kubečka, 1995. Land water ecotone effects in reservoirs on the fish fauna. Hydrobiologia 303: 11–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Duncan, A., J. Kubečka, S. Kett, N. Hanna & J. Skeldon, 2001. Habitats of 0+ fry in an English lowland river. Archiv für Hydrobiologie Supplement, Large Rivers 12: 153–171.Google Scholar
  11. Erös, T., B. Tóth, A. Sevcsik & D. Schmera, 2008. Comparison of fish assemblage diversity in natural and artificial rip-rap habitats in the littoral zone of a large river (River Danube, Hungary). International Review of Hydrobiology 93: 88–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fernando, C. H. & J. Holčík, 1991. Fish in reservoirs. Internationale Revue Der Gesamten Hydrobiologie 76: 149–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gliwicz, Z. M. & A. Jachner, 1992. Diel migrations of juvenile fish – a ghost of predation past or present? Archiv für Hydrobiologie 124: 385–410.Google Scholar
  14. Imbrock, F., A. Appenzeller & R. Eckmann, 1996. Diel and seasonal distribution of perch in Lake Constance: a hydroacoustic study and in situ observations. Journal of Fish Biology 49: 1–13.Google Scholar
  15. Irwin, E. R. & R. L. Noble, 2000. Diel distribution of age-0 largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, in B. E. Jordan Lake, North Carolina (USA) and its relation to cover. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 9: 229–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Irwin, E. R., R. L. Noble & J. R. Jackson, 1997. Distribution of age-0 largemouth bass in relation to shoreline landscape features. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 17: 882–893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jacobsen, L. & S. Berg, 1998. Diel variation in habitat use by planktivores in field enclosure experiments: the effect of submerged macrophytes and predation. Journal of Fish Biology 53: 1207–1219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Janáč, M. & P. Jurajda, 2005. Inter-calibration of three electric fishing techniques to estimate 0+ juvenile fish densities on sandy river beaches. Fisheries Management and Ecology 12: 161–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Janáč, M. & P. Jurajda, 2013. Diel differences in 0+ fish samples: effect of river size and habitat. River Research and Applications 29: 90–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jennings, M. J., M. A. Bozek, G. R. Hatzenbeler, E. E. Emmons & M. D. Staggs, 1999. Cumulative effects of incremental shoreline habitat modification on fish assemblages in north temperate lakes. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 19: 18–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jurajda, P. & J. Regenda, 2004. Littoral 0+ fish assemblages in three reservoirs of the Nové Mlýny Dam (Czech Republic). Czech Journal of Animal Science 49: 450–457.Google Scholar
  22. Jůza, T. & J. Kubečka, 2007. The efficiency of three fry trawls for sampling the freshwater community. Fisheries Research 85: 285–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jůza, T., M. Vašek, J. Kubečka, J. Seďa, J. Matěna, M. Prchalová, J. Peterka, M. Říha, O. Jarolím, M. Tušer, M. Kratochvíl, M. Čech, V. Draštík, J. Frouzová, E. Hohausová & J. Žaloudík, 2009. Pelagic underyearling communities in a canyon-shaped reservoir in late summer. Journal of Limnology 68: 304–314.Google Scholar
  24. Jůza, T., M. Vašek, M. Kratochvíl, P. Blabolil, M. Čech, V. Draštík, J. Frouzová, M. Muška, J. Peterka, M. Prchalová, M. Říha, M. Tušer & J. Kubečka, 2014. Chaos and stability of age-0 fish assemblage in a deep temperate reservoir: unpredictable success and stable behaviour. Hydrobiologia 724: 217–234.Google Scholar
  25. Kahl, U., S. Hülsmann, R. J. Radke & J. Benndorf, 2008. The impact of water level fluctuations on the year class strength of roach: implications for fish stock management. Limnologica 38: 258–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kratochvíl, M., J. Peterka, J. Kubečka, J. Matěna, M. Vašek, I. Vaníčková, M. Čech & J. Seďa, 2008. Diet of larvae and juvenile perch, Perca fluviatilis performing diel vertical migrations in a deep reservoir. Folia Zoologica 57: 313–323.Google Scholar
  27. Kratochvíl, M., T. Mrkvička, M. Vašek, J. Peterka, M. Čech, V. Draštík, T. Jůza, J. Matěna, M. Muška, J. Seďa, P. Znachor & J. Kubečka, 2012. Littoral age-0 fish distribution in relation to multi-scale spatial heterogeneity of a deep-valley reservoir. Hydrobiologia 696: 185–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kubečka, J., 1993. Night inshore migration and capture of adult fish by shore seining. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 24: 685–689.Google Scholar
  29. Kubečka, J. & A. Duncan, 1998. Diurnal changes of fish behaviour in a lowland river monitored by a dual-beam echosounder. Fisheries Research 35: 55–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lazzaro, X., 1987. A review of planktivorous fishes: their evolution, feeding behaviours, selectivities and impacts. Hydrobiologia 146: 97–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lepš, J. & P. Šmilauer, 2003. Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data Using CANOCO. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  32. Lewin, W. C., N. Okun & T. Mehner, 2004. Determinants of the distribution of juvenile fish in the littoral area of a shallow lake. Freshwater Biology 49: 410–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Matěna, J., 1995. The role of ecotones as feeding grounds for fish fry in a Bohemian water-supply reservoir. Hydrobiologia 303: 31–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Miranda, L. E., 2005. Refining boat electrofishing equipment to improve consistency and reduce harm to fish. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 25: 609–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Miranda, L. E. & M. Kratochvíl, 2008. Boat electrofishing relative to anode arrangement. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 137: 1358–1362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Muška, M., M. Tušer, J. Frouzová, V. Draštík, M. Čech, T. Jůza, M. Kratochvíl, T. Mrkvička, J. Peterka, M. Prchalová, M. Říha, M. Vašek & J. Kubečka, 2012. To migrate or not to migrate: partial diel horizontal migration of fish in a temperate freshwater reservoir. Hydrobiologia. DOI: 10.1007/s10750-012-1401-9.Google Scholar
  37. Okun, N. & T. Mehner, 2005a. Distribution and feeding of juvenile fish on invertebrates in littoral reed (Phragmites) stands. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 14: 139–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Okun, N. & T. Mehner, 2005b. Interactions between juvenile roach or perch and their invertebrate prey in littoral reed versus open water enclosures. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 14: 150–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Okun, N., W. C. Lewin & T. Mehner, 2005a. Top-down and bottom-up impacts of juvenile fish in a littoral reed stand. Freshwater Biology 50: 798–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Okun, N., R. Mendonca & T. Mehner, 2005b. Diel shifts in community composition and feeding of juvenile fishes in the pelagic area of a large shallow lake. Limnologica 35: 70–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pierce, C. L., A. M. Corcoran, A. N. Gronbach, S. Hsia, B. J. Mullarkey & A. J. Schwartzhoff, 2001. Influence of diel period on electrofishing and beach seining assessments of littoral fish assemblages. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 21: 918–926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Politou, C. Y., P. S. Economidis & A. I. Sinis, 1993. Feeding biology of bleak, Alburnus alburnus, in Lake Koronia, northern Greece. Journal of Fish Biology 43: 33–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Prchalová, M., J. Kubečka, M. Čech, J. Frouzová, V. Draštík, E. Hohausová, T. Jůza, M. Kratochvíl, J. Matěna, J. Peterka, M. Říha, M. Tušer & M. Vašek, 2009. The effect of depth, distance from dam and habitat on spatial distribution of fish in an artificial reservoir. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 18: 247–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Říha, M., J. Kubečka, M. Prchalová, T. Mrkvička, M. Čech, V. Draštík, J. Frouzová, E. Hohausová, T. Jůza, M. Kratochvíl, J. Peterka, M. Tušer & M. Vašek, 2011. The influence of diel period on fish assemblage in the unstructured littoral of reservoirs. Fisheries Management and Ecology 18: 339–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Říha, M., M. Vašek, M. Prchalová, T. Mrkvička, T. Jůza, M. Čech, V. Draštík, M. Muška, M. Kratochvíl, J. Peterka, M. Tušer, J. Seďa, M. Bláha & J. Kubečka, 2014. Diel horizontal migration of fish between littoral and pelagial in a model reservoir. Freshwater Biology (submitted).Google Scholar
  46. Sanders, R. E., 1992. Day versus night electrofishing catches from near-shore waters of the Ohio and Muskingum Rivers. Ohio Journal of Science 92: 51–59.Google Scholar
  47. Shoup, D. E., R. E. Carlson & R. T. Heath, 2003. Effects of predation risk and foraging return on the diel use of vegetated habitat by two size-classes of bluegills. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 132: 590–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Šmejkal, M., M. Prchalová, M. Čech, M. Vašek, M. Říha, T. Jůza, P. Blabolil & J. Kubečka, 2014. Associations of fish with various types of littoral habitats in reservoirs. Ecology of Freshwater Fish (in press).Google Scholar
  49. Thorpe, J. E., 1977. Morphology, physiology, behavior and ecology of Perca fluviatilis L. and P. flavescens Mitchill. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 34: 1504–1514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Vašek, M., J. Kubečka, J. Peterka, M. Čech, V. Draštík, M. Hladík, M. Prchalová & J. Frouzová, 2004. Longitudinal and vertical spatial gradients in the distribution of fish within a canyon-shaped reservoir. International Review of Hydrobiology 89: 352–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Vašek, M., J. Kubečka, J. Matěna & J. Seďa, 2006. Distribution and diet of 0+ fish within a canyon-shaped European reservoir in late summer. International Review of Hydrobiology 91: 178–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Vašek, M., M. Prchalová, J. Peterka, H. A. M. Ketelaars, A. J. Wagenvoort, M. Čech, V. Draštík, M. Říha, T. Jůza, M. Kratochvíl, T. Mrkvička, P. Blabolil, D. S. Boukal, J. Duras & J. Kubečka, 2013. The utility of predatory fish in biomanipulation of deep reservoirs. Ecological Engineering 52: 104–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Vostradovský, J., 1965. Some notes on the occurrence of fish fry along the banks of the Lipno Valley dam in the course of the day and night. Výzkumný ústav rybářský a hydrobiologický Vodňany 5: 221–230 (in Czech with English summary).Google Scholar
  54. Winfield, I. J., 2004. Fish in the littoral zone: ecology, threats and management. Limnologica 34: 124–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wolter, C. & J. Freyhof, 2004. Diel distribution patterns of fishes in a temperate large lowland river. Journal of Fish Biology 64: 632–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Kratochvíl
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. Vašek
    • 1
  • J. Peterka
    • 1
  • V. Draštík
    • 1
  • M. Čech
    • 1
  • T. Jůza
    • 1
  • M. Muška
    • 1
  • J. Matěna
    • 1
  • J. Kubečka
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of HydrobiologyBiology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i.České BudějoviceCzech Republic
  2. 2.Faculty of ScienceUniversity of South BohemiaČeské BudějoviceCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations