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Table 3 Overview of metrics for assessment of different Biological Quality Elements (BQEs) responding to (a) eutrophication pressure expressed as total phosphorus and (b) hydromorphological pressure expressed as water level fluctuations (winter drawdown) for macrophytes and as a stressor index for morphological modifications of lake shores for benthic invertebrates

From: Ecological status assessment of European lakes: a comparison of metrics for phytoplankton, macrophytes, benthic invertebrates and fish

BQE Metric Metric description
 Phytoplankton Chla Chlorophyll a (μg/l)
PTI Phytoplankton Trophic Index
FTI Functional Traits Index (mean of SPI and MFGI)
J Evenness
Cyano bloom intensity Cyanobacteria biovolume (mg/l)
 Macrophytes ICM Intercalibration Common Metric
EI Ellenberg Index of taxonomic composition
C max Maximum growing depth of submerged macrophytes
 Benthic invertebrates MMI Multimetric Index for intercalibration in the Central-Baltic GIG (including the single indices: number of EPTCBO taxa, ASPT, % ETO, % Habitat preference lithal
 Fish ELFI European Lake Fish Index (multimetric of BPUE, CPUE and CPUE_OMNI)
NLFI Nordic Lake Fish Index (multimetric of BPUE and BPUE_BENT)
 Macrophytes WIc Water level drawdown index for macrophytes
 Benthic invertebrates LIMCO Littoral Invertebrate Multimetric Index based on Composite Sampling
LIMHA Littoral Invertebrate Multimetric Index based on Habitat Specific Sampling
  1. For explanation of the acronyms of single indices, see references in text