, Volume 706, Issue 1, pp 139–158 | Cite as

Life in an unstable house: community dynamics in changing mussel beds

  • Vadim Khaitov


Mussels are ecosystem engineers, and fluctuations in their abundance and population structure could be important to the associated community. There is, however, little understanding of this connection. In the present study, based on quantitative monitoring (1997–2011) of three mussel beds in a fjord-like White Sea bay, two hypotheses were tested: (1) mussel assemblages are temporally unstable and local population fluctuates cyclically as a result of negative adult–juvenile interactions; and (2) oscillations in mussel size-structure are correlated with changes in the associated community structure. A negative correlation found between the abundance of small (length < 21 mm) and large (length > 20 mm) mussels suggests that adult mussels indeed suppress recruitment. Such interaction implies an auto-oscillatory pattern of population dynamics, with Large- and Small-dominated stages temporally replacing each other. This cyclic pattern was clearly revealed for one mussel bed only, but long-term replacement of the Large-dominated stage by the Small-dominated stage was revealed for the other two assemblages also. In general, temporal variations of mussel populations were significantly correlated with the dynamics of the associated community, although several abundant taxa (Tubificoides benedii, Littorina saxatilis, Macoma balthica, and Gammaridae) were insensitive to mussel changes. In contrast, filamentous algae and mud snails Hydrobia ulvae tended to be more abundant during the Large-dominated stage, whereas polychaetes Dipolydora quadrilobata were most abundant during the Small-dominated stage. Several other abundant “sensitive” taxa were obviously dependent on algal bloom. Thus, mussel beds are unstable systems, whose dynamics are shaped not only by the ecosystem engineer but also by the associated community.


Mytilus edulis Mussel beds Long-term changes Population dynamics Community dynamics Monitoring White Sea 



I wish to acknowledge all the students from the Laboratory of Marine Benthic Ecology and the staff of Kandalaksha State Nature Reserve for their help during field work. Special thanks go to Alexander Gornykh for creation of the database which became the basis for this study and to Maria Skazina for reading the manuscript and making helpful comments on the discussion. I am grateful to Dr Alexey Sukhotin for valuable advice and support in the preparation of the manuscript and to the anonymous referees whose comments considerably improved the final product. I am grateful to Natalia Lentsman for comprehensive linguistic assistance and much valuable editorial advice. The study was supported by RFBR grant no. 08-04-01315.


  1. André, C., P. R. Jonsson & M. Lindegarth, 1993. Predation on settling bivalve larvae by benthic suspension feeders: the role of hydrodynamics and larval behavior. Marine Ecology Progress Series 97: 183–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ávila, S. P., A. C. Santos, A. M. Penteado, A. M. Rodrigues, I. Quintino & M. I. Machado, 2005. The molluscs of the intertidal algal turf in the Azores. Iberus 23: 67–76.Google Scholar
  3. Baroli, M., M. Naldi, D. Nizzoli, V. Roubaix & P. Viaroli, 2003. Influence of clam farming on macroalgal growth: a microcosm experiment. Chemical Ecology 9: 147–160.Google Scholar
  4. Bayne, B., 1964. Primary and secondary settlement in Mytilus edulis. Journal of Animal Ecology 33: 513–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beadman, H. A., M. J. Kaiser, M. Galanidi, R. Shucksmith & R. J. Willows, 2004. Changes in species richness with stocking density of marine bivalves. Journal of Applied Ecology 41: 464–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bertness, M. D. & E. Grosholz, 1985. Population dynamics of the ribbed mussel, Geukensia demissa: the costs and benefits of an aggregated distribution. Oecologia 67: 192–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beukema, J. J. & R. Dekker, 2007. Variability in annual recruitment success as a determinant of long-term and large-scale variation in annual production of intertidal Wadden Sea mussels (Mytilus edulis). Helgoland Marine Research 61: 71–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beukema, J. J., R. Dekker, K. Essink & H. Michaelis, 2001. Synchronized reproductive success of the main bivalve species in the Wadden Sea: causes and consequences. Marine Ecology Progress Series 211: 143–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beukema, J. J., R. Dekker, & C. J. M. Philippart, 2010. Long-term variability in bivalve recruitment, mortality, and growth and their contribution to fluctuations in food stocks of shellfish-eating birds. Marine Ecology Progress Series 414: 117–130Google Scholar
  10. Bruno, J. F. & M. D. Bertness, 2001. Habitat modification and facilitation in benthic marine communities. In Bertness, M. D., S. D. Gaines & M. E. Hay (eds), Marine Community Ecology. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland: 201–218.Google Scholar
  11. Buschbaum, C., 2001. Selective settlement of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides (L.) facilitates its growth and reproduction on mussel beds in the Wadden Sea. Helgoland Marine Research 55: 128–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Buschbaum, C., S. Dittmann, J.-S. Hung, I. S. Hwang, M. Strasser, M. Thiel, N. Valdivia, S.-P. Yoon & K. Reise, 2009. Mytilid mussels: global habitat engineers in coastal sediments. Helgoland Marine Research 63: 47–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Büttger, H., H. Asmus, R. Asmus, C. Buschbaum, S. Dittmann & G. Nehls, 2008. Community dynamics of intertidal soft-bottom mussel beds over two decades. Helgoland Marine Research 62: 23–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Callaway, R., 2003. Long-term effects of imitation polychaete tubes on benthic fauna: they anchor Mytilus edulis (L.) banks. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 283: 115–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cardoso, P. G., A. I. Lillebo, M. A. Pardal, S. M. Ferreira & J. C. Marques, 2002. The effect of different primary producers on Hydrobia ulvae population dynamics: a case study in a temperate intertidal estuary. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 277: 173–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Casagrandi, R., L. Mari & M. Gatto, 2007. Modeling the local dynamics of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Freshwater Biology 52: 1223–1238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chamberlain, J., T. F. Fernandes, P. Read, T. D. Nickell & I. M. Davies, 2001. Impacts of biodeposits from suspended mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) culture on the surrounding surficial sediments. ICES Journal of Marine Science 58: 411–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Claessen, D., A. M. de Roos & L. Persson, 2004. Population dynamic theory of size-dependent cannibalism. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 271: 333–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Clarke, K. R. & R. N. Gorley, 2006. PRIMER v6: User Manual/Tutorial. PRIMER-E, Plymouth.Google Scholar
  20. Commito, J. A. & E. M. Boncavage, 1989. Suspension-feeders and coexisting infauna: an enhancement counterexample. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 125: 33–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Commito, J. A. & N. Dankers, 2001. Dynamics of spatial and temporal complexity in European and North American soft-bottom mussel beds. In Reise, K. (ed.), Ecological Comparisons of Sedimentary Shores. Springer, Berlin: 39–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Commito, J. A., E. A. Celano, H. J. Celico, S. Como & C. P. Johnson, 2005. Mussels matter: postlarval dispersal dynamics altered by a spatially complex ecosystem engineer. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 316: 133–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Commito, J. A., W. E. Dow & B. M. Grupe, 2006. Hierarchical spatial structure in soft-bottom mussel beds. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 330: 27–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Commito, J. A., S. Como, B. M. Grupe & W. E. Dow, 2008. Species diversity in the soft-bottom intertidal zone: biogenic structure, sediment, and macrofauna across mussel bed spatial scales. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 366: 70–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Crooks, J. A. & H. S. Khim, 1999. Architectural vs. biological effects of a habitat-altering, exotic mussel, Musculista senhousia. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 240: 53–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dankers, N., A. G. Brinkman, A. Meijboom & D. Dittman, 2001. Recovery of intertidal mussel beds in the Wadden Sea: use of habitat maps in the management of the fishery. Hydrobiologia 465: 21–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Davenport, J., P. G. Moore & E. LeComte, 1996. Observations on defensive interactions between predatory dogwhelks, Nucella lapillus (L.) and mussels, Mytilus edulis L. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 206: 133–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dittman, D. & C. Roblers, 1991. Effect of algal epiphytes on the mussel Mytilus californianus. Ecology 72: 286–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dittmann, S., 1990. Mussel beds – amensalism or amelioration for intertidal fauna? Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 44: 335–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dobretsov S.V. & G. Miron, 2001. Larval and postlarval vertical distribution of the mussel Mytilus edulis in the White Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 218: 179–187.Google Scholar
  31. Dobretsov, S. & M. Wahl, 2001. Recruitment preferences of blue mussel spat (Mytilus edulis) for different substrata and microhabitats in the White Sea (Russia). Hydrobiologia 445: 27–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dobretsov, S. & M. Wahl, 2008. Larval recruitment of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis: the effect of flow and algae. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 355: 137–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dolch, T. & K. Reise, 2010. Long-term displacement of intertidal seagrass and mussel beds by expanding large sandy bedforms in the northern Wadden Sea. Journal of Sea Research 63: 93–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dolmer, P. & E. Stenalt, 2010. The impact of the adult blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) population on settling of conspecific larvae. Aquaculture International 18: 3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dreyer, J. C., K. E. Knick, W. B. Flickinger & C. L. Van Dover, 2011. Development of macrofaunal community structure in mussel beds on the northern East Pacific Rise. Marine Ecology Progress Series 302: 121–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Duarte, C., E. Jaramillo, H. Contreras & L. Figueroa, 2006. Community structure of the macroinfauna in the sediments below an intertidal mussel bed (Mytilus chilensis (Hupe)) of southern Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 79: 353–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fabiano, M., R. Danovaro, E. Olivari & C. Misic, 1994. Decomposition of faecal matter and somatic tissue of Mytilus galloprovincialis: changes in organic matter composition and microbial succession. Marine Biology 119: 375–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Günther, C. P., 1996. Development of small Mytilus beds and its effects on resident intertidal macrofauna. Marine Ecology 17: 117–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gutierrez, J. L., C. G. Jones, D. L. Stayer & O. O. Iribarne, 2003. Mollusks as ecosystem engineers: the role of shell production in aquatic habitats. Oikos 101: 79–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hatcher, A., J. Grant & B. Schofield, 1994. Effects of suspended mussel culture (Mytilus spp.) on sedimentation, benthic respiration and sediment nutrient dynamics in a coastal bay. Marine Ecology Progress Series 115: 219–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Herlyn, M. & G. Millat, 2000. Decline of the intertidal blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) stock at the coast of Lower Saxony (Wadden Sea) and influence of mussel fishery on the development of young mussel beds. Hydrobiologia 426: 203–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hilgerloh, G., M. Herlyn & H. Michaelis, 1997. The influence of predation by herring gulls Larus argentatus and oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus on a newly established mussel Mytilus edulis bed in autumn and winter. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 51: 173–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Johnson, M. P., A. L. Allcock, S. E. Pye, S. J. Chambers, & D. M. Fitton, 2001. The effects of dispersal mode on the spatial distribution patterns of intertidal mollusks. Journal of Animal Ecology 70: 641–649.Google Scholar
  44. Jones, C. G., J. H. Lawton & M. Shachak, 1994. Organisms as ecosystem engineers. Oikos 69: 373–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kautsky, N. & S. Evans, 1987. Role of biodeposition by Mytilus edulis in the circulation of matter and nutrients in a Baltic coastal ecosystems. Marine Ecology Progress Series 38: 201–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kautsky, N. & I. Wallentinus, 1980. Nutrient release from a Baltic Mytilus-red algal community and its role in benthic and pelagic productivity. Ophelia 1: 17–30.Google Scholar
  47. Khaitov, V. M., M. V. Fokin & A. M. Nicolaeva, 1999. Structure of communities associated with dense assemblages of the tube dwelling polychaete Polydora quadrilobata Jacobi (Spionidae) in the White Sea. Hydrobiologia 393: 221–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Khaitov, V. M. & A. V. Artemieva, 2004. Interactions between blue mussels Mytilus edulis and snails Hydrobia ulvae in the intertidal zone of the Dolgaya bay (Solovetsky island) Vestnik St. Peterburgskogo Universiteta. Ser, 3 (Biol) 4: 35–41 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  49. Khaitov, V. M. & A. M. Nikolaeva, 1999. Structure of communities of mussel beds on the intertidal zone of Kandalaksha bay of the White Sea Vestnik St. Peterburgskogo Universiteta. Ser, 3 (Biol) 1: 9–28 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  50. Khaitov, V. M., A. V. Artemieva, A. E. Gornykh, O. G. Zhizhina & E. L. Yakovis, 2007. The role of mussel patches in structuring soft-bottom intertidal communities II. Community development in the field experiment. Vestnik St. Peterburgskogo Universiteta. Ser, 3 (Biol) 4: 13–26 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  51. Kochmann, J., C. Buschbaum, N. Volkenborn & K. Reise, 2008. Shift from native mussels to alien oysters: differential effects of ecosystem engineers. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 364: 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Koivisto, M. & M. Westerbom, 2010. Habitat structure and complexity as determinants of biodiversity in blue mussel beds on sublittoral rocky shores. Marine Biology 157: 1463–1474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Koivisto, M., M. Westerbom & A. Riihimäki, 2011. Succession-driven facilitation of macrofaunal communities in sublittoral blue mussel habitats. Marine Biology 158: 945–954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kotta, J., K. Herkul, I. Kotta, H. Orav-Kotta & V. Lauringson, 2009. Effects of the suspension feeding mussel Mytilus trossulus on a brackish water macroalgal and associated invertebrate community. Marine Ecology 30: 56–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Largaespada, C., F. Guichard & P. Archambault, 2012. Meta-ecosystem engineering: nutrient fluxes reveal intraspecific and interspecific feedbacks in fragmented mussel beds. Ecology 93: 324–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lehane, C. & J. Davenport, 2004. Ingestion of bivalve larvae by Mytilus edulis: experimental and field demonstrations of larviphagy in farmed blue mussels. Marine Biology 145: 101–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lewis, D. B., 1968. Some aspects of the ecology of Fabricia sabella (Ehr.) (Annelida, Polychaeta). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 47: 515–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. MacIsaac, H. J., W. G. Sprules & J. H. Leach, 1991. Ingestion of small-bodied zooplankton by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha): can cannibalism on larvae influence population dynamics? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 48: 2051–2060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McGrorty, S. & J. D. Goss-Custard, 1993. Population dynamics of the mussel Mytilus edulis along environmental gradients: spatial variations in density-dependent mortalities. Journal of Animal Ecology 62: 415–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. McGrorty, S., R. T. Clarke, C. J. Reading & J. D. Goss-Custard, 1990. Population dynamics of the mussel Mytilus edulis: density changes and regulation of the population in the Exe estuary, Devon. Marine Ecology Progress Series 67: 157–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mileikovsky, S. A., 1974. On predation of pelagic larvae and early juveniles of marine invertebrates by adult benthic invertebrates and their passing alive through their predators. Marine Biology 26: 303–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Naumov, A. D., 2006. Clams of the White Sea: ecological and faunistic analysis. Zoological Institute RAS. Saint-Petersburg (in Russian).Google Scholar
  63. Nehls, G. & M. Thiel, 1993. Large-scale distribution patterns of the mussel Mytilus edulis in the Wadden Sea of Schleswig-Holstein: do storms structure the ecosystem? Netherlands Journal of Sea Research 31: 181–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nehls, G., I. Hertzler & G. Scheiffarth, 1997. Stable mussel Mytilus edulis beds in the Wadden Sea They’re just for the birds. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 51: 361–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Noji, C. I. M. & T. T. Noji, 1991. Tube lawns of spionid polychaetes and their significance for recolonisation in disturbed benthic substrates. Meeresforschungen 33: 235–246.Google Scholar
  66. Norkko, A. & E. Bonsdorff, 1996. Population responses of coastal zoobenthos to stress induced by drifting algal mats. Marine Ecology Progress Series 140: 141–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Norkko, J., E. Bonsdorff & A. Norkko, 2000. Drifting algal mats as an alternative habitat for benthic invertebrates: species specific responses to a transient resource. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 248: 79–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Norling, P. & N. Kautsky, 2007. Structural and functional effects of Mytilus edulis on diversity of associated species and ecosystem functioning. Marine Ecology Progress Series 351: 163–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. O’Connor, N. E., T. P. Crowe & D. McGrath, 2006. Effects of epibiotic algae on the survival, biomass and recruitment of mussels, Mytilus edulis L. (Bivalvia: Mollusca). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 328: 265–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Olafsson, E. B., 1988. Inhibition of larval settlement to a soft bottom benthic community by drifting algal mats: an experimental test. Marine Biology 97: 571–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Palomo, M. G., J. People, M. G. Chapman & A. J. Underwood, 2007. Separating the effects of physical and biological aspects of mussel beds on their associated assemblages. Marine Ecology Progress Series 134: 131–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Peperzak, L. & M. Poelman, 2008. Mass mussel (Mytilus edulis) mortality in The Netherlands after a bloom of Phaeocystis globosa (Prymnesiophyceae). Journal of Sea Research 60: 220–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Peterson, B. J. & K. L. Heck, 2001. An experimental test of the mechanism by which suspension feeding bivalves elevate seagrass productivity. Marine Ecology Progress Series 218: 115–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Petraitis, P. S., 1987. Immobilization of the predatory gastropod, Nucella lapillus, by its prey, Mytilus edulis. Biological Bulletin 172: 307–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pineda, J., F. Porri, V. Starczak & J. Blythe, 2010. Causes of decoupling between larval supply and settlement and consequences for understanding recruitment and population connectivity. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 392: 9–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Porri, F., T. Jordaan & C. McQuaid, 2008. Does cannibalism of larvae by adults affect settlement and connectivity of mussel populations? Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 79: 687–693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Quinn, G. P. & M. J. Keough, 2002. Experimental Design and Data Analysis for Biologists. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Raffaelli, D., 2000. Interactions between macro-algal mats and invertebrates in the Ythan estuary, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Helgoland Marine Research 54: 71–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Reise, K., E. Herre & M. Sturm, 2008. Mudflat biota since the 1930s: change beyond return? Helgoland Marine Research 62: 13–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Roughgarden, J., Y. Iwasa & C. Baxter, 1985. Demographic theory for an open marine population with space-limited recruitment. Ecology 66: 54–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Salovius, S. & P. Kraufvelin, 2002. The filamentous green alga Cladophora glomerata as a habitat for littoral macrofauna in the Northern Baltic Sea. Ophelia 58: 1–14.Google Scholar
  82. Savage, R. E., 1956. The great spatfall of mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in the river Conway estuary in spring 1940. In: Fisheries Investigations Ser.II, Vol. XX (7): 22 pp.Google Scholar
  83. Seed, R., 1969. The Ecology of Mytilus edulis L. (Lamellibranchiata) on Exposed Rocky Shores. II. Growth and Mortality. Oecologia (Berl.) 3: 317–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Seed, R., 1996. Patterns of biodiversity in the macro-invertebrate fauna associated with mussel patches on rocky shores. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 76: 203–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Seed, R. & T. H. Suchanek, 1992. Population and community ecology of Mytilus. In Gosling, E. (ed.), The Mussel Mytilus: Ecology, Physiology, Genetics and Culture. Elsevier, Amsterdam: 87–169.Google Scholar
  86. Smith, J. R., P. Fong & R. F. Ambrose, 2006. Dramatic declines in mussel bed community diversity: response to climate change? Ecology 87: 1153–1161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Somerfield, P. J., K. R. Clarke & F. Olsgard, 2002. A comparison of the power of categorical and correlational tests applied to community ecology data from gradient studies. Journal of Animal Ecology 71: 581–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. StatSoft, 1994. Statistica for Windows manuals. StatSoft, Tulsa, OK.Google Scholar
  89. Steenbergen, J., J. M. D. D. Baars, M. R. van Stralen & J. A. Craeymeersch, 2006. Winter survival of mussel beds in the intertidal part of the Dutch Wadden Sea. In Laursen, K. (ed.), Monitoring and Assessment in the Wadden Sea. Proceedings from the 11 Scientific Wadden Sea Symposium, Denmark, Esbjerg 4–8. April, 2005. NERI Technical Report No. 573: 107–111.Google Scholar
  90. Stillman, R. A., S. McGrorty, J. D. Goss-Custard & A. D. West, 2000. Predicting mussel population density and age structure: the relationship between model complexity and predictive power. Marine Ecology Progress Series 208: 131–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Stoeck, T. & B. P. Albers, 2000. Microbial biomass and activity in the vicinity of a mussel bed built up by the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Helgoland Marine Research 54: 39–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Strayer, D. L. & H. M. Malcom, 2006. Long-term demography of a zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) population. Freshwater Biology 51: 117–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Thiel, M. & I. Kruse, 2001. Status of the Nemertea as predators in marine ecosystems. Hydrobiologia 456: 21–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Thiel, M. & N. Ullrich, 2002. Hard rock versus soft bottom: the fauna associated with intertidal mussel beds on hard bottoms along the coast of Chile, and considerations on the functional role of mussel beds. Helgoland Marine Research 56: 21–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Tsuchiya, M., 2002. Faunal structures associated with patches of mussels on East Asian coasts. Helgoland Marine Research 56: 31–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tsuchiya, M. & M. Nishihira, 1985. Islands of Mytilus as a habitat for small intertidal animals: effect of island size on community structure. Marine Ecology Progress Series 25: 71–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tsuchiya, M. & M. Nishihira, 1986. Islands of Mytilus edulis as a habitat for small intertidal animals: effect of Mytilus age on the species composition of the associated fauna and community organization. Marine Ecology Progress Series 31: 171–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Vinther, H. F., J. S. Laursen & M. Holmer, 2008. Negative effects of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) presence in eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds in Flensborg fjord, Denmark. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 77: 91–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wilson, W. H., 1991. Sexual reproductive modes in polychaetes: classification and diversity. Bulletin of Marine Science 48: 500–516.Google Scholar
  100. Woodin, S. A., 1976. Adult-larval interactions in dense faunal assemblages: patterns and abundance. Journal of Marine Research 34: 25–41.Google Scholar
  101. Ysebaert, T., M. Hart & P. M. J. Herman, 2009. Impacts of bottom and suspended cultures of mussels Mytilus spp. on the surrounding sedimentary environment and macrobenthic biodiversity. Helgoland Marine Research 63: 59–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Marine Benthic EcologyKandalaksha State Nature ReserveKandalakshaRussia
  2. 2.Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Biological FacultySaint-Petersburg State UniversitySaint-PetersburgRussia

Personalised recommendations