Advertisement

Hydrobiologia

, Volume 692, Issue 1, pp 67–81 | Cite as

Nutrient addition retards decomposition and C immobilization in two wet grasslands

  • Eva Kaštovská
  • Tomáš Picek
  • Jiří Bárta
  • Jiří Mach
  • Tomáš Cajthaml
  • Keith Edwards
WETLAND SERVICES AND MANAGEMENT

Abstract

Eutrophication is one of the biggest environmental problems facing wetlands. However, its effect on soil functioning is not yet well understood. We tested the hypothesis that increased nutrient loading into wet grassland ecosystems accelerates soil C and N cycles and decreases microbial immobilization of C and N. Experimental sites were established on two wet grasslands, with either mineral or peaty soils, and fertilized by NPK fertilizer for 3 years. Soils were analyzed for soluble and microbial C and N contents and their transformations, profile of phospholipid fatty acids and number of nirK denitrifiers. Fertilization affected C more than N transformations. Opposite to what was predicted, decomposition was retarded, the soil C cycle was based more on labile C compounds, and the soil was more susceptible to C losses in fertilized versus unfertilized treatments in both soils. Fertilization resulted in lower microbial biomass C and microbial C immobilization and also decreased the activity of lignin-degrading enzymes. Shifts in the composition of the microbial communities led to decreased (1) decomposition of complex organic compounds and (2) immobilization of transformed C. Net nitrification and microbial N immobilization tended to increase in fertilized treatments indicating an acceleration of soil N cycling and losses, but only in the more vulnerable organic soil.

Keywords

Wet meadows Eutrophication Lignin-degrading enzymes qPCR 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by Projects No. 526/09/1545 (awarded to Dr. Keith Edwards), No. 526/08/0751 of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic and No. GAJU04-142/2010/P of the Grant Agency of University of South Bohemia. We also thank our technician Terezia Říhová, and our students Pavla Staňková and Veronika Špátová, for their perfect work on the project.

References

  1. Allison, S. D., C. A. Hanson & K. K. Treseder, 2007. Nitrogen fertilization reduces diversity and alters community structure of active fungi in boreal ecosystem. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 39: 1878–1887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bardgett, R. D., J. L. Mawdsley, S. Edwards, P. J. Hobbs, J. S. Rodwell & W. J. Davies, 1999. Plant species and nitrogen effects on microbial properties of temperate upland grasslands. Functional Ecology 13: 650–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bardgett, R. D., T. C. Streeter, L. Cole & I. R. Hartley, 2002. Linkages between soil biota, nitrogen availability, and plant nitrogen uptake in a mountain ecosystem in the Scottish Highlands. Applied Soil Ecology 19: 121–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bardgett, R. D., R. van der Wal, I. S. Jonsdottir, H. Quirk & S. Dutton, 2007. Temporal variability in plant and soil nitrogen pools in a high-Arctic ecosystem. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 39: 2129–2137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barta, J., T. Melichova, D. Vanek, T. Picek & H. Santruckova, 2010a. Effect of pH and dissolved organic matter on the abundance of nirK and nirS denitrifiers in spruce forest soil. Biogeochemistry (in press). doi: 10.1007/s10533-010-9430-9.
  6. Barta, J., M. Applova, D. Vanek, M. Kristufkova & H. Santruckova, 2010b. Effect of available P and phenolics on mineral N release in acidified spruce forest: connection with lignin-degrading enzymes and bacterial and fungal communities. Biogeochemistry 97: 71–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bending, G. D., C. Putland & F. Rayns, 2000. Changes in microbial community metabolism and labile organic matter fractions as early indicators of the impact of management on soil biological quality. Biology and Fertility of Soils 31: 78–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bossio, D. A. & K. M. Scow, 1998. Impact of carbon and flooding on soil microbial communities: phospholipid fatty acid profiles and substrate utilization pattern. Microbial Ecology 35: 265–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brinson, M. M. & A. I. Malvarez, 2002. Temperate freshwater wetlands: types, status, and threats. Environmental Conservation 29: 115–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brookes, P. C., A. Landman, G. Pruden & D. S. Jenkinson, 1985. Chloroform fumigation and the release of soil-nitrogen – a rapid direct extraction method to measure microbial biomass nitrogen in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 17: 837–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Davidsson, T. E. & L. G. Leonardson, 1996. Effects of nitrate and organic carbon additions on denitrification in two artificially flooded soils. Ecological Engineering 7: 139–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. de Vries, W., J. Kros, O. Oenema & J. de Klein, 2003. Uncertainties in the fate of nitrogen. II: A quantitative assessment of the uncertainties in major nitrogen fluxes in the Netherlands. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 66: 71–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. de Vries, F. T., J. Bloem, N. van Eeckeren, L. Brusaard & E. Hoffland, 2007. Fungal biomass in pastures increases with age and reduced N input. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 39: 1620–1630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Denef, K., D. Roobroeck, M. C. W. Manimel Wadu, P. Lootens & P. Boeckx, 2009. Microbial composition and rhizodeposit-carbon assimilation in differently managed temperate grassland soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 41: 144–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dijkstra, F. A., S. E. Hobbie, P. B. Reich & J. M. H. Knops, 2005. Divergent effects of elevated CO2, N fertilization, and plant diversity on soil C and N dynamics in a grassland field experiment. Plant and Soil 272: 41–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Edwards, K. A., J. McCulloch, G. P. Kershaw & R. L. Jefferies, 2006. Soil microbial and nutrient dynamics in a wet Arctic sedge meadow in late winter and early spring. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 38: 2843–2851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. European Environmental Agency, 2003. Europe’s Environment: The Third Assessment. EEA, Copenhagen, Denmark.Google Scholar
  18. Evans, C., C. Goodale, S. Caporn, N. Dise, B. Emmett, I. Fernandez, C. Field, S. Findlay, G. Lovett, H. Meesenburg, F. Moldan & L. Sheppard, 2008. Does elevated nitrogen deposition or ecosystem recovery from acidification drive increased dissolved organic carbon loss from upland soil? A review of evidence from field nitrogen addition experiments. Biogeochemistry 91: 13–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fenn, M. E., M. A. Poth, J. D. Aber, J. S. Baron, B. T. Bormann, D. W. Johnson, A. D. Lemly, S. G. McNulty, D. E. Ryan & R. Stottlemyer, 1998. Nitrogen excess in North American ecosystems: predisposing factors, ecosystem responses, and management strategies. Ecological Applications 8: 706–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fog, K., 1988. The effect of added nitrogen on the rate of decomposition of organic matter. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 63: 433–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fortuna, A., A. R. Harwood, G. P. Robertson, J. W. Fisk & E. A. Paul, 2003. Seasonal changes in nitrification potential associates with application of N fertilizer and compost in maize systems of southwest Michigan. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 97: 285–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Frostegård, Å., A. Tunlid & E. Bååth, 1993. Phospholipid fatty acids composition, biomass, and activity of microbial communities from two soil types experimentally exposed to different heavy metals. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 59: 3605–3617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Galicia, L. & F. Garcia-Oliva, 2004. The effects of C, N and P additions on soil microbial activity under two remnant tree species in a tropical seasonal pasture. Applied Soil Ecology 26: 31–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Garcia-Montiel, D. C., J. M. Melillo, P. A. Steudler, C. C. Cerri & M. C. Piccolo, 2003. Carbon limitations to nitrous oxide emissions in a humid tropical forest of the Brazilian Amazon. Biology and Fertility of Soils 38: 267–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Golchin, A., P. Clarke & J. M. Oades, 1996. The heterogeneous nature of microbial products as shown by solid-state C-13 CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy. Biogeochemistry 34: 71–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Guckert, J. B., M. A. Hood & D. C. White, 1986. Phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid profile changes during nutrient deprivation of Vibrio cholerae: increases in trans/cis ratio and proportions of cyclopropyl fatty acid. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 52: 794–801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hassink, J. & J. J. Neeteson, 1991. Effect of grassland management on the amount of soil organic-N and C. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 39: 225–236.Google Scholar
  28. Hendel, B., R. L. Sinsabaugh & J. Marxsen, 2005. Lignin-degrading enzymes: phenoloxidase and peroxidase. In Graca, M. A. S., F. Bärlocher & M. O. Gessner (eds), Methods to Study Litter Decomposition: A Practical Guide. Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands: 273–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Henderson, S. L., C. E. Dandie, C. L. Patten, B. J. Zebarth, D. L. Burton, J. T. Trevors & C. Goyer, 2010. Changes in denitrifier abundance, denitrification gene mRNA levels, nitrous oxide emissions and denitrification in anoxic soil microcosms amended with glucose and plant residues. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76: 2155–2164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Henry, S., D. Bru, B. Stres, S. Hallet & L. Philippot, 2006. Quantitative detection of the nosZ gene, encoding nitrous oxide reductase, and comparison of the abundances of 16S rRNA, narG, nirK, and nosZ genes in soils. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72: 5181–5189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hodge, A., D. Robinson & A. Fitter, 2000. Are microorganisms more effective than plants at competing for nitrogen? Trends in Plant Science 5: 304–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Högberg, M. N., E. Bååth, A. Nordgen, K. Arnebrant & P. Högberg, 2003. Contrasting effects of nitrogen availability on plant carbon supply to mycorrhizal fungi and saprotrophs – a hypothesis based on field observations in boreal forest. New Phytologist 160: 225–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jackson, L. E., M. Burger & T. R. Cavgnaro, 2008. Roots, nitrogen transformations, and ecosystem services. Plant Biology 59: 341–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kastovska, E. & H. Santruckova, 2011. Comparison of uptake of different N forms by soil microorganisms and two wet-grassland plants: a pot study. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 43: 1285–1291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kuzyakov, Y., O. V. Biryukova, T. V. Kuznetzova, K. Mölter, E. Kandele & K. Stahr, 2002. Carbon partitioning in plant and soil, carbon dioxide fluxes and enzyme activities as affected by cutting ryegrass. Biology and Fertility of Soils 35: 348–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Leonardson, L. G., 1996. Effects of nitrate and organic carbon additions on denitrification in two artificially flooded soils. Ecological Engineering 7: 139–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mengel, K., B. Schneider & H. Kosegarten, 1999. Nitrogen compounds extracted by electroutlrafiltration (EUF) or CaCl2 solution and their relationships to nitrogen mineralization in soils. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 162: 139–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Navarrete, A., A. Peacock, S. J. Macnaughton, J. Urmeneta, J. Mas-Castalla, D. C. White & R. Guerrero, 2000. Physiological status and community composition of microbial mats of the Ebro delta, Spain, by signature lipid biomarkers. Microbial Ecology 39: 92–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Németh, K., H. Bartels, M. Vogel & K. Mengel, 1988. Organic nitrogen compounds extracted from arable and forest soils by electro-ultrafiltration and recovery rates of amino acids. Biology and Fertility of Soils 5: 271–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Niboyet, A., L. Barthes, B. A. Hungate, X. Le Roux, J. M. G. Bloor, A. Ambroise, S. Fontaine, P. M. Price & P. W. Leadley, 2010. Responses of soil nitrogen cycling to the interactive effects of elevated CO2 and inorganic N supply. Plant and Soil 327: 35–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Paterson, E., A. Sim, D. Standing, M. Dorward & A. J. S. McDonald, 2006. Root exudation from Hordeum vulgare in response to localized nitrate supply. Journal of Experimental Botany 57: 2413–2420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Picek, T., E. Kastovska, K. Edwards, K. Zemanova & J. Dusek, 2008. Short term effects of experimental eutrophication on carbon and nitrogen cycling in two types of wet grassland. Community Ecology 9: 81–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rejmankova, E., P. Macek & K. Epps, 2008. Wetland ecosystem changes after three years of phosphorus addition. Wetlands 28: 914–927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Scheuner, E. T. & F. Makeschin, 2005. Impact of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on carbon dynamics in two scots pine forest soils of northern Germany. Plant and Soil 275: 43–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sinsabaugh, R. L., M. E. Gallo, C. Lauber, M. P. Waldrop & D. R. Zak, 2005. Extracellular enzyme activities and soil organic matter dynamics for northern hardwood forests receiving simulated nitrogen deposition. Biogeochemistry 75: 201–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Snajdr, J., V. Valaskova, V. Merhautova, J. Herinkova, T. Cajthaml & P. Baldrian, 2008. Spatial variability of enzyme activities and microbial biomass in the upper layers of Quercus petraea forest soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 40: 2068–2075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Subbarao, G. V., O. Ito, K. L. Sahrawat, W. L. Berry, K. Nakahara, T. Ishikawa, T. Watanabe, K. Suenaga, M. Rondon & I. M. Rao, 2006. Scope and strategies for regulation nitrification in agricultural systems – challenges and opportunities. Critical Reviews in Plant Science 25(4): 303–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. ter Braak, C. J. F. & P. Smilauer, 1998. CANOCO Reference Manual and User’s Guide to Canoco for Windows: Software for Canonical Community Ordination (Version 4). Microcomputer Power, Ithaca, NY, USA.Google Scholar
  49. Tiedje, J. M., S. Simkins & P. M. Groffman, 1989. Perspectives on measurement of denitrification if the field including recommended protocols for acetylene based methods. In Clarholm, M. & L. Bergstrom (eds), Ekology of Arable Land. Kluwer, Dordrecht: 217–240.Google Scholar
  50. Tiemann, L. K. & S. A. Billings, 2008. Carbon controls on nitrous oxide production with changes in substrate availability in a North American grassland. Soil Science 173: 332–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Van Oorschot, M. M. P., 1994. Plant production, nutrient uptake, and mineralization in river marginal wetlands: the impact of nutrient additions due to former land-use. In Mitsch, W. J. (ed.), Global Wetlands: Old World and New. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands: 133–150.Google Scholar
  52. Vance, E. D., P. C. Brookes & D. S. Jenkinson, 1987. An extraction method for measuring soil microbial biomass C. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 19: 703–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Waldrop, M. P., D. R. Zak & R. L. Sinsabaugh, 2004. Microbial community response to nitrogen deposition in northern forest ecosystems. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 36: 1443–1451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Weintraub, M. N., L. E. Scott-Denton, S. K. Schmidt & R. K. Monson, 2007. The effects of tree rhizodeposition on soil exoenzyme activity, dissolved organic carbon, and nutrient availability in a subalpine forest ecosystem. Oecologia 154: 327–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yevdokimov, I., S. Saha, S. A. Blagodatsky & V. N. Kudeyanov, 2005. Nitrogen immobilization by soil microorganisms depending on nitrogen application rates. Eurasian Soil Science 38: 516–523.Google Scholar
  56. Yevdokimov, I., A. Gattinger, F. Buegger, J. C. Munch & M. Schloter, 2008. Changes in microbial community structure in soil as a result of different amounts of nitrogen fertilization. Biology and Fertility of Soils 44: 1103–1106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zhong, W. H., Z. C. Cai & H. Zhang, 2007. Effects of long-term application of inorganic fertilizers on biochemical properties of a rice-planting red soil. Pedosphere 17: 419–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eva Kaštovská
    • 1
  • Tomáš Picek
    • 1
  • Jiří Bárta
    • 1
  • Jiří Mach
    • 1
  • Tomáš Cajthaml
    • 2
  • Keith Edwards
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ecosystem Biology, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of South BohemiaCeske BudejoviceCzech Republic
  2. 2.Laboratory of Environmental MicrobiologyInstitute of Microbiology, Academy of Science Czech Republic, VviPrague 4Czech Republic

Personalised recommendations