Advertisement

Hydrobiologia

, Volume 675, Issue 1, pp 75–86 | Cite as

Diet overlap between the newly introduced Lamprichthys tanganicanus and the Tanganyika sardine in Lake Kivu, Eastern Africa

  • M. P. Masilya
  • F. Darchambeau
  • M. Isumbisho
  • J.-P. Descy
Primary Research Paper

Abstract

This study evaluates the possible competition for food between Lamprichthys tanganicanus, recently introduced in Lake Kivu, and Limnothrissa miodon, which has been the basis of the pelagic fishery in this lake for several decades. Since 2006, L. tanganicanus has expanded in the lake and its numbers have increased in the captures, raising concern for the sardine fishery. We carried out a 2-year monthly survey, based on experimental captures in littoral and pelagic stations, which demonstrated the invasive dispersal of L. tanganicanus in littoral and pelagic waters. The diet of both species was determined on the basis of gut content analyses, taking into account the influence of site and season, and a diet overlap index was calculated. In the pelagic zone, where almost all size classes of both species were present and essentially fed upon mesozooplankton, the diet overlap was high. This situation stems from the fact that L. tanganicanus has colonized the pelagic zone in Lake Kivu, likely in search for more abundant mesozooplankton. Inshore, the diet overlap between the two species was lower, as L. tanganicanus consumed a broad range of food, whereas L. miodon strongly selected insects and, chiefly for the largest specimens, fishes. These results suggest a likelihood of interspecific competition, particularly offshore, where mesozooplankton is the main available food type, and call for further monitoring of the sardine fishery, to assess a possible impact of the invader.

Keywords

Exotic species Resource competition Large African lake Fisheries 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was financed by the Commission Universitaire pour le Développement de la Communauté française de Belgique through the ECOSYKI Project and by the University of Namur through the Ph.D. scholarship to Pascal Masilya. François Darchambeau is a Postdoctoral researcher of the Belgian National Fund for Scientific Research. The authors are grateful to Mrs Georges Alunga Lufungula, Pitchou Munini M’Mende, and Kisekelwa Tchalondawa for field and laboratory assistance. Thanks to two anonymous reviewers for their many useful suggestions and comments to improve this article.

References

  1. Bãnaru, D. & M. Harmelin-Vivien, 2009. Feeding behaviour of Black Sea bottom fishes: did it change over time? Acta Oecologica 35: 769–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beadle, L. C., 1981. The Inland Waters of Tropical Africa, an Introduction to Tropical Limnology, 2nd ed. Longman, London.Google Scholar
  3. Cohen, A. S., M. J. Soreghan & C. A. Scholz, 1993. Estimating the age of formation of lakes – an example from Lake Tanganyika, East-African rift system. Geology 21: 511–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Collart, A., 1960. L’introduction du Stolothrissa tanganicae (Ndagala) au lac Kivu. Bulletin Agricole du Congo LI: 975–986.Google Scholar
  5. Corrêa, C. A., N. S. Hahn & R. L. Delariva, 2009. Extreme trophic segregation between sympatric fish species: the case of small sized body Aphyocharax in the Brazilian Pantanal. Hydrobiologia 635: 57–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Coulter, G. W., 1991. Pelagic and the benthic fish community. In Coulter, G. W. (ed.), Lake Tanganyika and Its Life. Natural History Museum Publications/Oxford University Press, London: 111–138, 151–199.Google Scholar
  7. de Iongh, H. H., P. C. Spliethoff & V. G. Frank, 1983. Feeding habits of the clupeid Limnothrissa miodon (Boulenger), in Lake Kivu. Hydrobiologia 102: 113–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Degens, E., R. P. Herzen, H.-K. Wong, W. G. Deuser & H. W. Jannasch, 1973. Lake Kivu: structure, chemistry and biology of an East African rift lake. Geologische Rundschau 62: 245–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dolbeth, M., F. Martinho, R. Leitao, H. Cabral & M. A. Pardal, 2008. Feeding patterns of the dominant benthic and demersal fish community in a temperate estuary. Journal of Fish Biology 72: 2500–2517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dumont, H. J., 1986. The Tanganyika sardine in Lake Kivu: another ecodisaster for Africa? Environmental Conservation 13: 143–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Genner, M. J., G. F. Turner & S. J. Hawkins, 1999. Foraging of rocky habitat cichlid fishes in Lake Malawi: coexistence through niche partitioning? Oecologia 121: 283–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gozlan, R. E., 2008. Introduction of non-native freshwater fish: is it all bad? Fish and Fisheries 9: 106–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Guillard, J., 2009. Estimation de l’abondance du stock de Limnothrissa miodon dans le lac Kivu au cours de deux campagnes : février et juillet 2008. Rapport ECOSYKI, Commission Universitaire pour le Développement, Communauté Française de Belgique.Google Scholar
  14. Hansen, B., P. K. Bjørnsen & P. J. Hansen, 1994. The size ratio between planktonic predators and their prey. Limnology and Oceanography 39: 395–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hyslop, E. J., 1980. Stomach contents analysis – a review of methods and their application. Journal of Fish Biology 17: 411–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Isumbisho, M., M. Kaningini, J.-P. Descy & E. Baras, 2004. Seasonal and diel variations in diet of the young stages of Limnothrissa miodon in Lake Kivu, Eastern Africa. Journal of Tropical Ecology 20: 73–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Isumbisho, M., H. Sarmento, B. Kaningini, J.-C. Micha & J.-P. Descy, 2006a. Zooplankton of Lake Kivu, East Africa, half a century after the Tanganyika sardine introduction. Journal of Plankton Research 28: 971–989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Isumbisho, M., H. Sarmento & J.-P. Descy, 2006b. Qualitative composition of the pelagic mesozooplankton in Lake Kivu, eastern Africa: impact of Limnothrissa miodon introduction. In Isumbisho, M. (ed.), Zooplankton Ecology of Lake Kivu (Eastern Africa). PhD thesis, Presses Universitaire de Namur, Belgium: 39–55.Google Scholar
  19. Kaningini, M., 1995. Etude de la croissance, de la reproduction et de l’exploitation de Limnothrissa miodon au lac Kivu, bassin de Bukavu (Zaïre). Faculté de Sciences, Thèse, Facultés Universitaires Notre Dame de la Paix, Namur, Belgique.Google Scholar
  20. Lamboeuf, M., 1989. Estimation de l’abondance du stock d’Isambaza (Limnothrissa miodon), résultats de la prospection acoustique de septembre 1989. Projet/RWA/87/012: 13 pp.Google Scholar
  21. Lamboeuf, M., 1991. Abondance et répartition du Limnothrissa miodon du lac Kivu, résultat des prospections acoustiques d’avril 1989 à juin 1991. DOC/TR NO. RWA/87/012/DOC/TR/46 (Fr). FAO.Google Scholar
  22. Lauzanne, L., 1976. Régimes alimentaires et relations trophiques des poissons du lac Tchad. Cahiers Orstom, Série Hydrobiologie 10: 267–310.Google Scholar
  23. Lazzaro, X., 1987. A review of planktivorous fishes: their evolution, feeding behaviours, selectivities, and impacts. Hydrobiologia 146: 97–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lazzaro, X., G. Lacroix, B. Gauzens, J. Gignoux & S. Legendre, 2009. Predator foraging behaviour drives food-web topological structure. Journal of Animal Ecology 78: 1307–1317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lévêque, C., 1997. Introductions de nouvelles espèces de poissons dans les eaux douces tropicales : objectifs et conséquences. Bulletin Française de Pêche et de Pisciculture 344(345): 79–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lodge, D. M., R. A. Stein, K. M. Brown, A. R. Covich, C. Brönmark, J. E. Garvey & S. P. Klosiewski, 1998. Predicting impact of freshwater exotic species on native biodiversity: challenges in spatial scaling. Australian Journal of Ecology 23: 53–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lushombo, M. & M. Nshombo, 2008. Apparition au lac Kivu du poisson Lamprichthys tanganicanus (Poeciliidae), espèce endémique du lac Tanganyika. Annales des Sciences de l’Université Officielle de Bukavu 1: 1–5.Google Scholar
  28. Macneale, K. H., B. L. Sanderson, J.-Y. P. Courbois & P. M. Kiffney, 2010. Effects of non-native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) on threatened juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in an Idaho stream. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 19: 139–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mandima, J. J., 1999. The food and feeding behaviour of Limnothrissa miodon (Boulenger, 1906) in Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe. Hydrobiologia 407: 175–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mandima, J. J., 2000. Spatial and temporal variations in the food of the sardine Limnothrissa miodon (Boulenger, 1906) in Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe. Fisheries Research 48: 197–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Masilya, P., B. Kaningini, P. Isumbisho, J.-C. Micha & G. Ntakimazi, 2005. Food and feeding activity of Limnothrissa miodon (Boulenger, 1906) in the southern part of Lake Kivu, Central Africa. In International Conference Africa’s Great Rift: Diversity and Unity. Royal Academy for Overseas Sciences Royal Museum for Central Africa, Brussels, 29–30 September, 2005: 83–93.Google Scholar
  32. Muderhwa, N. & L. Matabaro, 2010. The introduction of the endemic fish species, Lamprichthys tanganicanus (Poeciliidae), from Lake Tanganyika into Lake Kivu: possible causes and effects. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management 13: 203–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Museth, J., R. Borgstrøm & J. E. Brittain, 2010. Diet overlap between introduced European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) and young brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the lake, Øvre Heimdalsvatn: a result of abundant resources or forced niche overlap? Hydrobiologia 642: 93–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ogutu-Ohwayo, R., R. E. Hecky, A. S. Cohen & L. Kaufman, 1997. Human impacts on the African Great Lakes. Environmental Biology of Fishes 50: 117–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pardo, R., I. Vila & J. J. Capella, 2009. Competitive interaction between introduced rainbow trout and native silverside in a Chilean stream. Environmental Biology of Fishes 86: 353–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pasche, N., 2009. Nutrient Cycling and Methane Production in Lake Kivu. Thèse de Doctorat, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.Google Scholar
  37. Persson, L., 1985. Optimal foraging: the difficulty of exploiting different feeding strategies simultaneously. Oecologia (Berlin) 67: 338–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pianka, E. R., 1974. Niche overlap and diffuse competition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 71: 2141–2145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pouclet, A., 1978. Les communications entre les grands lacs de l’Afrique centrale. Implications sur la structure du rift occidental. Musée royal d’Afrique centrale, Département de Géologie et Minéralogie. Rapport annuel 1977: 145–155.Google Scholar
  40. Preikshot, D., E. Nsiku, T. Pitcher & D. Pauly, 1998. An interdisciplinary evaluation of the status and health of African lake fisheries using a rapid appraisal technique. Journal of Fish Biology 53: 381–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Qin, J., J. Xu & P. Xie, 2007. Diet overlap between the endemic fish Anabarilius grahami (Cyprinidae) and the exotic noodlefish Neosalanx taihuensis (Salangidae) in Lake Fuxian, China. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 22: 365–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. R Development Core Team, 2005. R. A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, Reference Index Version 2.2.1. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Australia. ISBN 3-900051-07-0. http://www.R-project.org.
  43. Roest, F. C., 1999. Introduction of a pelagic fish into a large natural Lake: Lake Kivu, Central Africa. In van Densen, W. L. T. & M. J. Morris (eds), Fish and Fisheries of Lakes and Reservoirs in Southeast Asia and Africa. Westbury Publishing, Otley: 327–338.Google Scholar
  44. Rosecchi, E. & Y. Nouazé, 1987. Comparaison de cinq indices alimentaires utilisés dans l’analyse des contenus stomacaux. Revue des Travaux de l’Institut des Pêches Maritimes 49: 111–123.Google Scholar
  45. Sale, F. P., 1974. Overlap in resource use, and interspecific competition. Oecologia (Berlin) 17: 245–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sampson, S. J., J. H. Chick & M. A. Pegg, 2009. Diet overlap among two Asian carp and three native fishes in backwater lakes on the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. Biological Invasions 11: 483–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sarmento, H., M. Leitao, M. Stoyneva, P. Compère, A. Couté, M. Isumbisho & J.-P. Descy, 2007. Species diversity of pelagic algae in Lake Kivu (East Africa). Cryptogamie and Algologie 28: 245–269.Google Scholar
  48. Sarmento, H., F. Unrein, I. Mwapu, S. Sténuite, J. M. Gasol & J.-P. Descy, 2008. Abundance and distribution of picoplankton in tropical, oligotrophic Lake Kivu, eastern Africa. Freshwater Biology 53: 756–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sarmento, H., M. Isumbisho, S. Sténuite, F. Darchambeau, B. Leporcq & J.-P. Descy, 2009. Phytoplankton ecology of Lake Kivu (eastern Africa): biomass, production and elemental ratios. Verhandlungen des Internationalen Verein Limnologie 30: 709–713.Google Scholar
  50. Snoeks, J., L. De Vos & D. Thys van den Audenaerde, 1997. The ichtyogeography of Lake Kivu. South African Journal of Science 93: 579–584.Google Scholar
  51. Tachet, H., M. Bournaud & P. Richoux, 1980. Introduction à l’étude des macroinvertébrés des eaux douces (Systématique élémentaire et aperçu écologique). Association Française de Limnologie, Lyon, France.Google Scholar
  52. Verbeke, J., 1957. Exploration hydrobiologique des lacs Kivu, Edouard et Albert. Recherches Ecologiques sur la faune des Grands Lacs de l’est du Congo Belge, Vol. III. Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Bruxelles.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. P. Masilya
    • 1
    • 2
  • F. Darchambeau
    • 1
    • 3
  • M. Isumbisho
    • 2
  • J.-P. Descy
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology, URBE, Department of BiologyUniversity of NamurNamurBelgium
  2. 2.Unité d’Enseignement et de Recherche en Hydrobiologie Appliquée (UERHA)ISP/BukavuBukavuDemocratic Republic of Congo
  3. 3.Chemical Oceanography UnitLiègeBelgium

Personalised recommendations