The role of freshwater inflow in lagoons, rivers, and bays
- 524 Downloads
The aim of this study was to compare the impact of different freshwater inflow volumes on benthic communities and water column dynamics in different estuary classes. Benthic and water column spatial dynamics were contrasted in lagoons (with no direct inflow sources), tidal rivers that empty directly into the Gulf of Mexico, and bar-built bay systems (with direct inflow sources) along the Texas (USA) coast to determine the role of inflow in regulating ecosystem structure and function. Chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations were inversely correlated with salinity and were thus highest in the river systems, but lowest in lagoons. All Texas estuary types studied have conservative mixing for silicate and ammonium but are sinks for nitrite plus nitrate and phosphate. Macrobenthic production (abundance and biomass) was lowest in rivers and highest in lagoons. Diversity was low in estuaries with salinities between 1 and 17, but increased with salinities of up to 30, before decreasing in hypersaline conditions. Macrofaunal community structure divided the estuaries into two groups. The first group represented polyhaline communities and contained lagoons (East Matagorda, Matagorda, Christmas, and South Bays). The second group represented oligo-mesohaline community characteristics and contained the secondary bays (Lavaca Bay and Cedar Lakes) and rivers (San Bernard River, Brazos River, and the Rio Grande). The implications of these results for managing freshwater flows is that altered hydrology can change the character of estuarine systems regardless of their classification as bays, lagoons, or tidal rivers.
KeywordsBenthos Macrofauna Meta-analysis Nutrients Salinity Texas
The field work for this study was supported by the Texas Water Development Board, Research and Planning Fund, Research Grants, authorized under the Texas Water Code, Chapter 15, and as provided in §16.058 and §11.1491. This support was administered by the Board under interagency cooperative contracts 2001-483-362, 2002-483-414, 2003-483-471, 2004-483-012, 2005-483-541, and 2006-483-026. Much of the analytical work was supported by grant number NA09NMF4720179 from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration under the Comparative Assessment of Marine Ecosystem (CAMEO) program. The study also benefitted by partial support from the University of Texas at Austin, Marine Science Institute, and Texas A&M University—Corpus Christi. Larry Hyde, Christopher Kalke, Jeff Baguley, Marc Russell, Julie Kinsey, and others aided in field collections. Tracy Villareal and Lynn Tinnin performed nutrient analyses and measurements. Carrol Simanek also provided significant help in data management. Anne Evans and Laura Ryckman provided help with the initial development of this manuscript. Review and advice on earlier drafts was provided by the Bay and Estuaries Division of the Texas Water Development Board. This manuscript was improved with the assistance of two anonymous reviewers.
- Bricker, S., B. Longstaff, W. Dennison, A. Jones, K. Boicourt, C. Wicks & J. Woerner, 2007. Effects of nutrient enrichment in the nation’s estuaries: a decade of change. NOAA Coastal Ocean Program Decision Analysis Series No. 26, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Silver Spring, MD: 322 pp.Google Scholar
- Chapman, E. R., 1966. The Texas basins project. In Smith, R. F., A. H. Swartz & W. H. Massmann (eds), A Symposium on Estuarine Fisheries, Vol. 95. American Fisheries Society, Washington, DC: 83–92.Google Scholar
- Clarke, K. R. & R. N. Gorley, 2006. Primer v6: User Manual/Tutorial. Primer-E, Plymouth, UK.Google Scholar
- Clarke, K. R. & R. M. Warwick, 2001. Change in Marine Communities: An Approach to Statistical Analysis and Interpretation, 2nd ed. Primer-E, Plymouth, UK.Google Scholar
- Dalrymple, R. W., B. A. Zaitlin & R. Boyd, 1992. A conceptual model of estuarine sedimentation. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 62: 1130–1146.Google Scholar
- Fairbridge, R. W., 1980. The estuary: its definition and geodynamic cycle. In Olausson, E. & I. Cato (eds), Chemistry and Biogeochemistry of Estuaries. Wiley, New York: 1–35.Google Scholar
- Folk, R. L., 1964. Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks. Hemphill’s Press, Austin, TX: 155.Google Scholar
- Grenon, J.-F., 1982. The macrobenthic fauna of the Eastmain Estuary (James Bay, Quebec), before the diversion. Naturaliste Canadien 109: 793–802.Google Scholar
- Hayes, M. O., 1975. Morphology and sand accumulation in estuaries. In Cronin, L. E. (ed.), Estuarine Research, Vol. 2. Academic Press, New York: 3–22.Google Scholar
- International Boundary and Water Commission, 2010. Rio Grande Historical Mean Daily Discharge Data. IBWC [available on internet at http://ibwc.gov/wad/DDQBROWN.htm]. Accessed Nov 2010.
- Kalke, R. D. & P. A. Montagna, 1991. The effect of freshwater inflow on macrobenthos in the Lavaca River Delta and Upper Lavaca Bay, Texas. Contributions in Marine Science 32: 49–71.Google Scholar
- Lavaca-Navidad River Authority, 2010. Lake Texana ~ Palmetto Bend Project Historical Spillway & Row Releases. LNRA [available on internet at http://www.lnra.org]. Accessed Jan 2010.
- Longley, W. L. (ed.), 1994. Freshwater Inflows to Texas Bays and Estuaries: Ecological Relationships and Methods for Determination of Needs. Texas Water Development Board and Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Austin, TX: 386. http://midgewater.twdb.state.tx.us/bays_estuaries/Publications/FreshwaterInflows-EcologicalRelationshipsandMethodsforDeterminationofNeeds-1994.pdf.
- Ludwig, J. A. & J. F. Reynolds, 1988. Statistical Ecology: A Primer on Methods and Computing. Wiley, New York: 368.Google Scholar
- Montagna, P. A., 2000. Effect of freshwater inflow on macrobenthos productivity and nitrogen losses in Texas estuaries. Final Report to Texas Water Development Board, Contract No. 2000-483-323, University of Texas Marine Science Institute Technical Report Number TR/00-03, Port Aransas, TX: 78 [available on internet at http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/rwpg/rpgm_rpts/2000483323.pdf].
- Montagna, P. A., 2003. Effect of freshwater inflow on macrobenthos productivity in minor bay and river-dominated estuaries—FY03. Final Report to Texas Water Development Board, Contract No. 2003-483-471, University of Texas Marine Science Institute Technical Report Number TR/03-03: 56 [available on internet at http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/rwpg/rpgm_rpts/2003483471.pdf].
- Montagna, P. A. & R. D. Kalke, 1995. Ecology of infauna mollusca in south Texas estuaries. American Malacological Bulletin 11: 163–175.Google Scholar
- Montagna, P. A. & J. Li, 2010. Effect of freshwater inflow on nutrient loading and macrobenthos secondary production in Texas. In Kennish, M. J. & H. W. Paerl (eds), Coastal Lagoons: Critical Habitats of Environmental Change. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL: 513–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Montagna, P. A., T. A. Palmer & J. B. Pollack, 2008b. Effect of freshwater inflow on macrobenthos productivity in minor bay and river-dominated estuaries—synthesis. Final Report to Texas Water Development Board, Contract No. 2006-483-026, Texas A&M University—Corpus Christi: 110 [available on internet at http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/RWPG/rpgm_rpts/20064830026_MinorBays.pdf].
- Montagna, P. A., E. M. Hill & B. Moulton, 2009. Role of science-based and adaptive management in allocating environmental flows to the Nueces Estuary, Texas, USA. In Brebbia, C. A. & E. Tiezzi (eds), Ecosystems and Sustainable Development VII. WIT Press, Southampton, UK: 559–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pearson, T. H. & R. Rosenberg, 1978. Macrobenthic succession in relation to organic enrichment and pollution of the marine environment. Oceanography and Marine Biology 16: 229–311.Google Scholar
- Piegorsh, W. W. & A. J. Bailer, 1997. Statistics for Environmental Biology and Toxicology. Chapman & Hall, London: 579 pp.Google Scholar
- Pritchard, D. W., 1960. Lectures on estuarine oceanography. In Kinsman, B. (ed.), Johns Hopkins University: 154 pp.Google Scholar
- Pritchard, D. W., 1967. What is an Estuary: Physical Viewpoint. In Lauff, G. H. (ed.), Estuaries. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC: 3–5.Google Scholar
- Redfield, A. C., 1958. The Biological control of chemical factors in the environment. American Scientist 46: 205–221.Google Scholar
- Remane, A., 1934. Die Brackwasserfauna. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft 36: 34–74.Google Scholar
- Remane, A. & C. Schlieper, 1971. Biology of Brackish Water. Wiley, New York: 372 pp.Google Scholar
- SAS Institute Inc., 2009. SAS/STAT® 9.2 User’s Guide, 2nd ed. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA: 7886 pp.Google Scholar
- Schubel, J. R. & V. S. Kennedy, 1984. The estuary as a filter: an introduction. In Kennedy, V. S. (ed.), The Estuary as a Filter. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Sutcliffe, W. H. Jr., 1972. Some relations of land drainage, nutrients, particulate material, and fish catch in two eastern Canadian bays. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 29: 357–362.Google Scholar
- United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1997. Method 445.0, In vitro determination of chlorophyll a and pheophytin a in marine and freshwater algae by fluorescence. USEPA, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH [available on internet at http://www.epa.gov/microbes/m445_0.pdf].
- United States Geological Survey, 2010. WaterWatch (Stations 08116650, 08117500, 08162500, 08162600 & 08164000). USGS [available on internet at http://waterwatch.usgs.gov]. Accessed Dec 2010.
- Ward, G. H. Jr., & N. E. Armstrong, 1980. Matagorda Bay, Texas, its hydrography, ecology, and fishery resources. Report FWS/OB5-81/52, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior: 230.Google Scholar