Stable isotope variation of a highly heterogeneous shallow freshwater system
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Food web structure is well known to vary widely among ecosystems. Recent research indicates that there can be a high degree of spatial heterogeneity within ecosystems as well. Xochimilco is a small heterogeneous freshwater system that has been transformed into a network of canals, small lakes, and wetlands. Located within Mexico City, this ecosystem has been intensively managed and highly impacted for more than 50 years. This system receives urban and agricultural runoff, with resulting impacts on water quality. The aquatic community is dominated by exotics such as carp (Cyprinus carpio) and tilapia (Oreocrhomis niloticus), though the system still supports endemic species such as the aquatic salamander, axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), and crayfish (Cambarellus montezumae), which are both endangered. In this study, we used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes for the whole food web and gut content analysis from the exotic fishes to describe food web structure in different canals within Xochimilco. There were significant isotopic differences among canals. These differences may result from isotopic baseline differences as well as differences in actual food web structure: both are related to local spatial variation in water quality driven by nutrient inputs and exotic fishes. Within-ecosystem variability is likely to be seen in other perturbed shallow systems as well, and should be explicitly considered in future food web studies.
KeywordsExotic fish Carp Isotopes Tilapia Urban lake Xochimilco
Thanks to Roberto Altamirano for the help during sampling and Victoria Contreras for the map and her suggestions to the manuscript. Thanks to anonymous referees whose suggestions increased the quality of this manuscript. Part of this study was supported by Canadian Association of Zoos and Aquarium (CAZA), Darwin Initiative Indesol, CONABIO, and el Posgrado en Ciencias Biológicas.
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