A morphometrically based method for predicting water layer boundaries in meromictic lakes
- 111 Downloads
Many general mass-balance models that simulate processes in one or two water layers have been successfully constructed, tested and used to predict effects from remediating lake pollution and other environmental disturbances. However, these models are poorly suited for meromictic lakes which consist of yet another water layer. In order to determine a cross-systems based algorithm for the depth of the boundary between the two lowest layers (D crit2; in m), data from 24 three-layer lakes were analysed, and this depth could be predicted from the maximum depth and the lake surface area. The resulting model was tested with good results against independent data from 6 lakes which were not used for model development. Furthermore, D crit2 was predicted at a considerably lower depth than the theoretical wave base (a previously defined functional separator between the two top layers) in 110 out of 113 meromictic lakes. This indicates that the equation for D crit2 estimated in this study may be used for developing general mass-balance models for a large number of lakes which contain three stable water layers.
KeywordsLakes Layers Stratification Meromixis Morphometry
The author is very grateful to the editorial board of Hydrobiologia and two anonymous reviewers for improving earlier versions of this article.
- Brezonik, P. L. & J. L. Fox, 1974. The limnology of selected Guatemalan lakes. Hydrobiologia 45: 467–487.Google Scholar
- Burton, H. R., 1980. Methane in a saline Antarctic lake. In Trudinger, P. A. & M. R. Walter (eds), Biogeochemistry of Ancient and Modern Environments. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Environmental Biogeochemistry (ISEB). Australian Academy of Science, Canberra: 243–251.Google Scholar
- Casamayor, E. O., H. Schafer, L. Baneras, C. Pedros-Alio & G. Muyzer, 2000. Identification of and spatio-temporal differences between microbial assemblages from two neighboring sulfurous lakes: Comparison by microscopy and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66: 499–508.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Goldman, C. R., D. T. Mason & J. E. Hobbie, 1967. Two Antarctic desert lakes. Limnology and Oceanography 12: 295–310.Google Scholar
- Hakala, A., 2004. Meromixis as a part of lake evolution: Observations and a revised classification of true meromictic lakes in Finland. Boreal Environment Research 9: 37–53.Google Scholar
- Hakala, A., 2005. Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic studies on the sediments of Lake Vähä-Pitkusta and observations of meromixis. Ph.D. thesis, extended summary. University of Helsinki, Helsinki.Google Scholar
- Håkanson, L., 2006. Suspended particulate matter in lakes, rivers, and marine systems. The Blackburn Press, New Jersey.Google Scholar
- Jacquet, S., J.-F. Briand, C. Leboulanger, C. Avois-Jacquet, L. Oberhaus, B. Tassin, B. Vinçon-Leite, G. Paolini, J.-C. Druart, O. Anneville & J.-F. Humbert, 2005. The proliferation of the toxic cyanobacterium Planktothrix rubescens following restoration of the largest natural French lake (Lac du Bourget). Harmful Algae 4: 651–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Straškrábová, V., L. R. Izmest’yeva, E. A. Maksimova, S. Fietz, J. Nedoma, J. Borovec, G. I. Kobanovac, E. V. Shchetinina & E. V. Pislegina, 2005. Primary production and microbial activity in the euphotic zone of Lake Baikal (Southern Basin) during late winter. Global and Planetary Change 46: 57–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Walker, K. F. & G. E. Likens, 1975. Meromixis and a reconsidered typology of lake circulation patterns. Internationale Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie: Verhandlungen 19: 442–458.Google Scholar
- Wetzel, R. G., 2001. Limnology, 3rd ed. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar