, Volume 610, Issue 1, pp 175–192 | Cite as

Geothermal diatoms: a comparative study of floras in hot spring systems of Iceland, New Zealand, and Kenya

Primary research paper


Diatom floras were examined from geothermal environments in three contrasting tectonic settings. These included subduction-related acid and alkaline springs in New Zealand; alkaline springs along a divergent plate boundary on Iceland; and alkaline springs in the Kenya Rift. These shallow (<1 cm) aquatic environments vary considerably (e.g., temperature: 21.3–99°C; pH: 2.1–9.65; 56.41–643 mg l−1 SiO2). Diatoms form an important component of geothermal floras at temperatures of <45°C. The floras from New Zealand are distinguished by the common occurrence of Pinnularia. Icelandic springs have a variety of Fragilariaceae. Navicula and Anomoeoneis are most common in the Kenyan springs. Statistical analyses suggest that the diatoms cluster into seven major groups. The most common taxa include: Achnanthidium exiguum v. heterovalvum (Kras.) Czarn., Anomoeoneis sphaerophora (Ehrenb.) Pfitz, Brachysira brebissonii f. thermalis Grun., Caloneis bacillum (Grun.) Cl., Craticula cuspidata (Kütz.) Mann, Diadesmis confervacea Kütz., Epithemia argus (Ehrenb.) Kütz., Frustulia rhomboides (Ehrenb.) DeT., Hantzschia amphioxys (Ehrenb.) Grun., Navicula tenelloides Hust., Nitzschia amphibia Grun., Nitzschia inconspicua Grun., Nitzschia invisitata Hust., Nitzschia frustulum (Kütz.) Grun., Nitzschia sigma (Kütz.) W, Smith., Pinnularia chapmaniana Fog., Pinnularia appendiculata (Ag.) Cl., Pinnularia molaris (Grun.) Cl., Pinnularia acoricola Hust., Rhopalodia gibberula (Ehrenb.) O. Müll., Staurosira construens v. venter (Ehrenb.) Ham., Staurosira elliptica (Schum.) Will. & Round, and Staurosirella pinnata (Ehrenb.) Will. & Round. Canonical correspondence analysis shows clear correlations between species, alkalinity, pH, and conductivity, with less strong correlations for silica and temperature. Other factors include substrate type, current velocity, and light conditions. The preservation potential of host deposits varies considerably, being lowest for springs on clastic deltas and highest where travertine or sinter is accumulating.


Diatoms Variability Hot springs Thermal streams Swamps Phycogeography 



Research was conducted with the permission of the Office of the President and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Republic of Kenya. Iceland samples were collected under permits issued by the Environment and Food Agency. Samples from New Zealand were collected under a permit issued by the Department of Conservation. Research was supported by: Hong Kong Baptist University Grant FRG/00-01/I-44 (R. B. Owen); the Hong Kong Research Grants Council (201306 to Owen); and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (grants 629-03 to Renaut and A6090 to Jones). We also thank William Kimosop, Chief Game Warden for the northern Kenya Rift, and Helgi Torfason of the Icelandic Institute of Natural History for their support during fieldwork.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Bernhart Owen
    • 1
  • Robin W. Renaut
    • 2
  • Brian Jones
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of GeographyHong Kong Baptist UniversityKowloon TongHong Kong
  2. 2.Department of Geological SciencesUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  3. 3.Department of Earth and Atmospheric SciencesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

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