Advertisement

Hydrobiologia

, Volume 609, Issue 1, pp 83–96 | Cite as

Weir removal in salmonid streams: implications, challenges and practicalities

  • Carlos Garcia de Leaniz
EIFAC 2006: DAMS, WEIRS AND FISH

Abstract

Low-head dams and weirs can greatly limit the distribution and abundance of Atlantic salmon and other migratory salmonids in streams. Weirs can significantly increase the vulnerability of migratory fish to anglers, alter natural migration patterns, and exacerbate the effects of opportunistic predators. Overcrowding of fish at downstream pools can also facilitate the spread of parasites and infectious diseases, magnify the impact of pollution incidents, and increase the risk of mass mortalities, particularly at low flows. Not surprisingly, augmenting the accessible stream area constitutes one of the best ways to restore depleted salmonid populations. In this context, the removal of unused or illegal weirs can be an efficient, cheap solution to increase stream accessibility. Here, I examine some impacts of weirs on Atlantic salmon populations, and document with case studies the removal and breaching of weirs in several Iberian streams.

Keywords

Dam removal Salmonids River restoration Fish movements Atlantic salmon River connectivity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Special thanks are due to all the people who helped and supported the weir demolition projects discussed here, in particular Paco Vaamonde, Pablo Caballero, Manolo Rego, Jesús de la Fuente, José Manuel Araujo, Angel Serdio, Sonia Consuegra, Pedro Brufao and César Rodríguez. Sonia Consuegra and two anonymous referees made useful comments on the manuscript.

Supplementary material

10750_2008_9397_MOESM1_ESM.doc (652 kb)
(DOC 653 kb)

References

  1. Aarestrup, K. & A. Koed, 2003. Survival of migrating sea trout Salmo trutta and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts negotiating weirs in small Danish rivers. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 12: 169–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvarez, J. & M. Lamuela, 2001. Situación actual del salmón atlántico en Navarra. In García de Leániz, C., A. Serdio & S. Consuegra (eds), El Salmón, Joya de Nuestros Ríos. Consejería de Ganadería, Agricultura y Pesca, Santander: 97–110.Google Scholar
  3. Alvarez, J., I. Urrizalki, I. Mendiola, C. Rodriguez, C. Garcia de Leániz, S. Consuegra & A. Serdio, 2003. Densidad de obstáculos y su incidencia sobre el área utilizada por el salmón en los ríos ibéricos. In Lamuela, M. & J. Alvarez (eds), Un Viaje de Ida y Vuelta. IV Jornadas del Salmón Atlántico en la Península Ibérica. Dpto. de Medio Ambiente, Ordenación del Territorio y Vivienda. Gestión Ambiental—Viveros y Repoblaciones de Navarra, Pamplona: 177–186.Google Scholar
  4. American Rivers, 1999. Dam removal success stories. Restoring rivers through selective removal of dams that don’t make sense. Report Prepared in Cooperation with Trout Unlimited and Friends of the Earth. http://www.amrivers.org/successstories.html 12/14/99.
  5. American Rivers, 2002. The Ecology of Dam Removal. A Summary of Benefits and Impacts. American Rivers, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  6. American Rivers, 2005. Dams Slated for Removal in 2005 and Dams Removed from 1999–2004. American Rivers, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  7. Arenillas, M. & J. C. Castillo, 2003. Dams from the Roman era in Spain. Analysis of design forms. TRAIANVS. 1st International Congress on Construction History, Madrid.Google Scholar
  8. Ashley, J. T. F., K. Bushaw-Newton, M. Wilhelm, A. Boettner, G. Drames & D. J. Velinsky, 2006. The effects of small dam removal on the distribution of sedimentary contaminants. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 114: 287–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Babbitt, B., 2002. What goes up, may come down. BioScience 52: 656–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baumgartner, L. J., 2007. Diet and feeding habits of predatory fishes upstream and downstream of a low-level weir. Journal of Fish Biology 70: 879–894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bednarek, A. T., 2001. Undamming rivers: A review of the ecological impacts of dam removal. Environmental Management 27: 803–814.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berg, M., B. Abrahamsen & O. K. Berg, 1986. Spawning of injured compared to uninjured female Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Aquaculture & Fisheries Management 17: 195–199.Google Scholar
  13. Brufao, P., 2001. Aprovechamientos hidráulicos y conservación de los ecosistemas fluviales: consideraciones legales. In García de Leániz, C., A. Serdio & S. Consuegra (eds), El Salmón, Joya de Nuestros Ríos. Consejería de Ganadería, Agricultura y Pesca, Santander: 181–186.Google Scholar
  14. Brufao, P., 2006. La demolición de presas y otras obras hidráulicas en España. Quercus 241.Google Scholar
  15. Brufao, P. & C. Rodriguez, 2003. Desmantelamiento de presas y otras obras hidráulicas. In Lamuela, M. & J. Alvarez (eds), Un Viaje de Ida y Vuelta. IV Jornadas del Salmón Atlántico en la Península Ibérica. Dpto. de Medio Ambiente, Ordenación del Territorio y Vivienda. Gestión Ambiental—Viveros y Repoblaciones de Navarra, Pamplona: 205–214.Google Scholar
  16. Carss, D. N., H. Kruuk & J. W. H. Conroy, 1990. Predation on adult Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., by otters, Lutra lutra L., within the River Dee system, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Journal of Fish Biology 37: 935–944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Catalano, M. J., M. A. Bozek & T. D. Pellett, 2001. Fish-habitat relations and initial response of the Baraboo River fish community to dam removal. Bulletin of the North American Benthological Society 18: 177.Google Scholar
  18. Clarkin, K., A. Connor, M. Furniss, B. Gubernick, M. Love, K. Moynan & S. W. Musser, 2005. National inventory and assessment procedure for identifying barriers to aquatic organism passage at road-stream crossings. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, National Technology and Development Program.Google Scholar
  19. Consuegra, S., C. García de Leániz & A. Serdio, 2003. Estado sanitario del Salmón atlántico en Cantabria: desarrollo y aplicación de métodos moleculares. In Lamuela, M. & J. Alvarez (eds), Un Viaje de Ida y Vuelta. IV Jornadas del Salmón Atlántico en la Península Ibérica. Dpto. de Medio Ambiente, Ordenación del Territorio y Vivienda. Gestión Ambiental—Viveros y Repoblaciones de Navarra, Pamplona: 123–134.Google Scholar
  20. Consuegra, S., C. García de Leániz, A. Serdio & E. Verspoor, 2005. Selective exploitation of early running fish may induce genetic and phenotypic changes in Atlantic salmon. Journal of Fish Biology 67: 130–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. De Gaudemar, B., S. L. Schroder & E. P. Beall, 2000. Nest placement and egg distribution in Atlantic salmon redds. Environmental Biology of Fishes 57: 37–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. de la Fuente, J. & J. M. Araujo, 2001. Mejora de la accesibilidad en pequeños azudes. In García de Leániz, C., A. Serdio & S. Consuegra (eds), El Salmón, Joya de Nuestros Ríos. Consejería de Ganadería, Agricultura y Pesca, Santander: 251–268.Google Scholar
  23. Dieperink, C., S. Pedersen & M. I. Pedersen, 2001. Estuarine predation on radiotagged wild and domesticated sea trout Salmo trutta L. smolts. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 10: 177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Doyle, M. W., E. H. Stanley, J. M. Harbor & G. S. Grant, 2003. Dam removal in the United States: Emerging needs for Science and Policy. EOS 84: 29–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Doyle, M. W., E. H. Stanley, M. A. Luebke & J. M. Harbor, 2000. Dam removal: Physical, biological, and societal considerations. American Society of Civil Engineers. Joint Conference on Water Resources Engineering and Water Resources Planning and Management, Minneapolis, MN.Google Scholar
  26. Doyle, M. W., E. H. Stanley, C. H. Orrb, A. R. Sellec, S. A. Sethib & J. M. Harbor, 2005. Stream ecosystem response to small dam removal: Lessons from the heartland. Geomorphology 71: 227–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Epple, R., 2000. Dam decommissioning in France. World Commission on Dams Report. http://www.dams.org/kbase/submissions/showsub.php?rec=OPT136.
  28. ERN, 2006. European Rivers Network. The Loire-Allier salmon in France: A survivor. http://www.rivernet.org/general/salmon/saumo1_e.htm.
  29. Frissell, C. A., 1993. Topology of extinction and endangerment of native fishes in the Pacific Northwest and California U.S.A. Conservation Biology 7: 342–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Garcia de Leaniz, C., D. W. Forman, S. Davies & A. Thomson, 2006. Non-intrusive monitoring of otters (Lutra lutra) using infrared technology. Journal of Zoology (London) 270: 577–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Garcia de Leaniz, C., A. D. Hawkins, D. W. Hay & J. J. Martínez, 1987. The Atlantic Salmon in Spain. The Atlantic Salmon Trust, Pitlochry.Google Scholar
  32. García de Leániz, C., A. Serdio & S. Consuegra, 2001. Situación actual del salmón atlántico en Cantabria. In García de Leániz, C., A. Serdio & S. Consuegra (eds), El Salmón, Joya de Nuestros Ríos. Consejería de Ganadería, Agricultura y Pesca, Santander: 55–82.Google Scholar
  33. Geist, D. R., R. S. Brown, V. I. Cullinan, M. G. Mesa, S. P. Vanderkooi & C. A. McKinstry, 2003. Relationships between metabolic rate, muscle electromyograms and swim performance of adult chinook salmon. Journal of Fish Biology 63: 970–989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gerlier, M. & P. Roche, 1998. A radio telemetry study of the migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. and sea trout Salmo trutta trutta L. in the upper Rhine. Hydrobiologia 371/372: 283–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gosset, C., J. Rives & J. Labonne, 2006. Effect of habitat fragmentation on spawning migration of brown trout Salmo trutta L. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 15: 247–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gowans, A. R. D., J. D. Armstrong & I. G. Priede, 1999. Movements of adult Atlantic salmon in relation to a hydroelectric dam and fish ladder. Journal of Fish Biology 54: 713–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Grant, G., 2001. Dam removal: Panacea or Pandora for rivers? Hydrological Processes 15: 1531–1532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gudjónsson, T., 1988. Exploitation of Atlantic salmon in Iceland. In Mills, D. & D. Piggins (eds), Atlantic Salmon: Planning for the Future. Croom Helm, London: 162–178.Google Scholar
  39. Guitart, R & V. G. Thomas, 2005. Is lead used in sports hunting, shooting and angling an underestimated public health problem? Revista Española de Salud Pública 79: 621–632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hart, D. D., T. E. Johnson, K. L. Bushaw-Newton, R. J. Horwitz, A. T. Bednarek, D. F. Charles, D. A. Kreeger & D. J. Velinsky, 2002. Dam removal: Challenges and opportunities for ecological research and river restoration. BioScience 52: 669–681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hart, D. D. & N. L. Poff, 2002. A special section on dam removal and river restoration. BioScience 52: 653–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Havel, J. E., C. E. Lee & M. J. V. Zanden, 2005. Do reservoirs facilitate invasions into landscapes? BioScience 55: 518–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Heggenes, J. & K. H. Røed, 2006. Do dams increase genetic diversity in brown trout Salmo trutta? Microgeographic differentiation in a fragmented river. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 15: 366–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Heinz Center, 2002. Dam Removal. Science and Decision Making. The Heinz Center, Washington.Google Scholar
  45. Hjorth, P., 2001. Operation, Monitoring and Decommissioning of Dams. World Commission on Dams. Thematic Review IV.5: Operation, Monitoring and Decommissioning of Dams.Google Scholar
  46. Ibbotson, A., J. Smith, P. Scarlett & M. Aprahamian, 2002. Colonisation of freshwater habitats by the European eel Anguilla anguilla. Freshwater Biology 47: 1696–1706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Johnson, S. E. & B. E. Graber, 2002. Enlisting the social sciences in decisions about dam removal. BioScience 52: 731–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jormola, J., 2001. Problems and possibilities of lowland river restoration in boreal circumstances. In Nijland, H. J. & M. J. R. Cals (eds), River Restoration in Europe. Conference on River Restoration, Practical Approaches Riza Rapport Nr.: 2001.023: 313.Google Scholar
  49. Karppinen, P., T. S. Mäkinen, J. Erkinaro, V. V. Kostin, R. V. Sadkovskij, A. I. Lupandin & M. Kaukoranta, 2002. Migratory and route-seeking behaviour of ascending Atlantic salmon in the regulated River Tuloma. Hydrobiologia 483: 23–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kennedy, G. J. A. & J. E. Greer, 1988. Predation by cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo on the salmonid populations of an Irish river. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 19: 159–170.Google Scholar
  51. Kondolf, G. M., 1997. Hungry water: Effects of dams and gravel mining on river channels. Environmental Management 21: 533–551.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kondolf, G. M., 2000. Assessing salmonid spawning gravel quality. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 129: 262–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kondolf, G. M., 2001. Historical changes to the San Francisco bay-delta watershed: Implications for ecosystem restoration. In Nijland, H. J. & M. J. R. Cals (eds), River Restoration in Europe. Conference on River Restoration, Practical Approaches Riza Rapport Nr.: 2001.023: 327–338.Google Scholar
  54. Larinier, M., 2001. Environmental issues, dams and fish migration. In Marmulla, G. (ed.), FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 419. Dams, Fish and Fisheries. Opportunities, Challenges and Conflict Resolution. FAO, Rome: 45–89.Google Scholar
  55. Larinier, M., 2003. L’expérience française dans le domaine du rétablissement de la libre circulation des poissons à la montaison et à la dévalaison. In Lamuela, M. & J. Alvarez (eds), Un Viaje de Ida y Vuelta. IV Jornadas del Salmón Atlántico en la Península Ibérica. Dpto. de Medio Ambiente, Ordenación del Territorio y Vivienda. Gestión Ambiental—Viveros y Repoblaciones de Navarra, Pamplona: 171–176.Google Scholar
  56. Levin, P. S. & N. Tolimieri, 2001. Differences in the impacts of dams on the dynamics of salmon populations. Animal Conservation 4: 291–299.Google Scholar
  57. Lewis, D., 2001. Rescuing a fragile river from over-exploitation—Australia’s River Murray. In Nijland, H. J. & M. J. R. Cals (eds), River Restoration in Europe. Conference on River Restoration, Practical Approaches Riza Rapport Nr.: 2001.023: 319–326.Google Scholar
  58. Love, M., 1999. FishXing Version 2.1. FishXing Project. Six River National Forest Watershed Interactions Team, USA.Google Scholar
  59. Machado, T. F. & M. H. Alves, 2001. Rehabilitation of a river in an urban area, the Jamor River case. In Nijland, H. J. & M. J. R. Cals (eds), River Restoration in Europe. Conference on River Restoration, Practical Approaches Riza Rapport Nr.: 2001.023: 277–280.Google Scholar
  60. Marmulla, G., 2001. Dams, Fish and Fisheries. Opportunities, challenges and conflict resolution. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 419. Dams, Fish and Fisheries. Opportunities, Challenges and Conflict Resolution. FAO, Rome: 1–166.Google Scholar
  61. Martín Ventura, J. A., 1988. The Atlantic salmon in Asturias, Spain: Analysis of catches, 1985–86. Inventory of juvenile densities. In D. Mills & D. Piggins (eds), Atlantic Salmon: Planning for the Future. Croom Helm, London: 210–227.Google Scholar
  62. Márquez, I., 1999. Patógenos de salmónidos detectados en el Principado de Asturias. I Semana del Salmón Atlántico en la Península Ibérica. Libro de Ponencias y Comunicaciones, Oviedo: 135–139.Google Scholar
  63. Meadows, R., 2001. Turning a radical idea into reality: Removing Edwards Dam in Augusta, Maine. Conservation Biology in Practice 2: 32–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Meehan, W. R. (ed.), 1991. Influences of Forest and Rangeland Management on Salmonid Fishes and their Habitats. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.Google Scholar
  65. Meldgaard, T., E. E. Nielsen & V. Loeschcke, 2003. Fragmentation by weirs in a riverine system: A study of genetic variation in time and space among populations of European grayling Thymallus thymallus in a Danish river system. Conservation Genetics 4: 735–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mills, D. H., 1989. Ecology and Management of Atlantic Salmon. Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  67. Morita, K. & S. Yamamoto, 2002. Effects of habitat fragmentation by damming on the persistence of stream-dwelling charr populations. Conservation Biology 16: 1318–1323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Naughton, G. P., C. C. Caudill, M. L. Keefer, T. C. Bjornn, L. C. Stuehrenberg & C. A. Peery, 2005. Late-season mortality during migration of radio-tagged adult sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka in the Columbia River. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62: 30–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Netboy, A., 1968. The Atlantic Salmon, a Vanishing Species? Faber and Faber, London.Google Scholar
  70. Netboy, A., 1974. The Salmon, their Fight for Survival. Andre Deutsch, London.Google Scholar
  71. Nijland, H. J. & M. J. R. Cals, (eds), 2001. River Restoration in Europe. Conference on River Restoration, Practical Approaches. Riza Rapport Nr.: 2001.023.Google Scholar
  72. Nilsson, C., C. A. Reidy, M. Dynesius & C. Revenga, 2005. Fragmentation and flow regulation of the world’s large river systems. Science 308: 405–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. O’Connor, J. P., D. J. O’Mahony, J. M. O’Mahony & T. J. Glenane, 2006. Some impacts of low and medium head weirs on downstream fish movement in the Murray-Darling Basin in southeastern Australia. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 15: 419–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. O’Hanley, J. R. & D. Tomberlin, 2005. Optimizing the removal of small fish passage barriers. Environmental Modeling and Assessment 10: 85–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Økland, F., J. Erkinaro, K. Moen, E. Niemelä, P. Fiske, R. S. McKinley & E. B. Thorstad, 2001. Return migration of Atlantic salmon in the River Tana: Phases of migratory behaviour. Journal of Fish Biology 59: 862–874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Østdahl, T., T. Taugbøl, O. Andersen & J. Vittersø, 2001. Stakeholder attitudes to river modification and restoration. In Nijland, H. J. & M. J. R. Cals (eds), River Restoration in Europe. Conference on River Restoration, Practical Approaches Riza Rapport Nr.: 2001.023: 315.Google Scholar
  77. Pejchar, L. & K. Warner, 2001. A river might run through it again: Criteria for consideration of dam removal and interim lessons from California. Environmental Management 28: 561–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Peters, C. N. & D. R. Marmorek, 2001. Application of decision analysis to evaluate recovery actions for threatened Snake River spring and summer chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58: 2431–2446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Peters, C. N., D. R. Marmorek & R. B. Deriso, 2001. Application of decision analysis to evaluate recovery actions for threatened Snake River fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58: 2447–2458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pielou, E. C., 1998. Freshwater. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  81. Raymond, H. L., 1979. Effects of dams and impoundments on migration of juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead from the Snake River, 1966–1975. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 109: 509–525.Google Scholar
  82. Redeker, M., M. Weyand & E. A. Nusch, 2004. Restoration of fish passage and results of a master plan established for the Ruhr River Basin. 3rd European Conference on River Restoration. Zagreb, Croatia: 305–313.Google Scholar
  83. Reyes-Gavilán, F. G., R. Garrido, A. G. Nicieza, M. M. Toledo & F. Braña, 1996. Fish community variation along physical gradients in short streams of northern Spain and the disruptive effect of dams. Hydrobiologia 321: 155–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Riber, H. H., 2001. Skjern River restoration project. In Nijland, H. J. & M. J. R. Cals (eds), River Restoration in Europe. Conference on River Restoration, Practical Approaches Riza Rapport Nr.: 2001.023: 209–214.Google Scholar
  85. Rivinoja, P., 2005. Migration problems of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. in flow regulated rivers. PhD thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.Google Scholar
  86. Robertson, C. T., 2005. Conservation of endangered Atlantic salmon in Maine. PhD thesis, Department of Zoology, University of Toronto, Toronto.Google Scholar
  87. Roni, P., T. J. Beechie, R. E. Bilby, F. E. Leonetti, M. M. Pollock & G. R. Pess, 2002. A review of stream restoration techniques and a hierarchical strategy for prioritizing restoration in Pacific Northwest watersheds. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 22: 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Schmidt, G., M. Otoala-Urrutxi, A. Fernández-Lop & B. Gutiérrez-Monzonís, 2001. River restoration practice in Spain. In Nijland, H. J. & M. J. R. Cals (eds), River Restoration in Europe. Conference on River Restoration, Practical Approaches Riza Rapport Nr.: 2001.023: 309.Google Scholar
  89. Serdio, A., C. García de Leániz & S. Consuegra, 2001a. Efectos de los azudes sobre las poblaciones de salmón Atlántico. In García de Leániz, C., A. Serdio & S. Consuegra (eds), El Salmón, Joya de Nuestros Ríos. Consejería de Ganadería, Agricultura y Pesca, Santander: 237–250.Google Scholar
  90. Serdio, A., C. García de Leániz & S. Consuegra, 2001b. Estrategia de recuperación del río Nansa como hábitat salmonero. In García de Leániz, C., A. Serdio & S. Consuegra (eds), El Salmón, Joya de Nuestros Ríos. Consejería de Ganadería, Agricultura y Pesca, Santander: 143–153.Google Scholar
  91. Serdio, A., C. García de Leániz & S. Consuegra, 2003. Depredadores piscívoros en los ríos de Cantabria y su efecto sobre poblaciones amenazadas de salmón Atlántico. In Lamuela, M. & J. Alvarez (eds), Un Viaje de Ida y Vuelta. IV Jornadas del Salmón Atlántico en la Península Ibérica. Dpto. de Medio Ambiente, Ordenación del Territorio y Vivienda. Gestión Ambiental—Viveros y Repoblaciones de Navarra, Pamplona: 43–54.Google Scholar
  92. Solomon, D. J. & H. T. Sambrook, 2004. Effects of hot dry summers on the loss of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, from estuaries in South West England. Fisheries Management and Ecology 11: 353–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Solomon, D. J., H. T. Sambrook & K. J. Broad, 1999. Salmon migration and river flow. Results of tracking radio tagged salmon in six rivers in South West England. Research & Development Publication 4, Environment Agency, Almondsbury.Google Scholar
  94. Stanley, E. H. & M. W. Doyle, 2003. Trading off: The ecological effects of dam removal. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1: 15–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Stanley, E. H., M. A. Luebke, M. W. Doyle & D. W. Marshall, 2002. Short-term changes in channel form and macroinvertebrate communities following low-head dam removal. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 21: 172–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Steen, R. P. & T. P. Quinn, 1999. Egg burial depth by sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka: Implications for survival of embryos and natural selection on female body size. Canadian Journal of Zoology 77: 836–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Steinbach, P., 2001. Situation and restoration of amphihalin migratory fishes in the Loire Basin. Bulletin Français de la Pêche et la Pisciculture 357–360: 263–276.Google Scholar
  98. Summers, D. W., 1996a. Differences in the time of river entry of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., spawning in different parts of the River North Esk. Fisheries Management and Ecology 3: 209–218.Google Scholar
  99. Summers, D. W., 1996b. Environmental influences on the timing of spawning of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in the River North Esk. Fisheries Management and Ecology 3: 281–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Taggart, J. B., I. S. McLaren, D. W. Hay, J. H. Webb & A. F. Youngson, 2001. Spawning success in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): A long-term DNA profiling-based study conducted in a natural stream. Molecular Ecology 10: 1047–1060.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tamés, P., F. Alvarez, J. Puebla & D. San Emeterio, 2003. Actuaciones sobre la eliminación de obstáculos y construcción de pasos para peces en los ríos del territorio histórico de Gipuzkoa. In Lamuela, M. & J. Alvarez (eds), Un Viaje de Ida y Vuelta. IV Jornadas del Salmón Atlántico en la Península Ibérica. Dpto. de Medio Ambiente, Ordenación del Territorio y Vivienda. Gestión Ambiental—Viveros y Repoblaciones de Navarra, Pamplona: 197–204.Google Scholar
  102. Thorstad, E. B. & T. G. Heggberget, 1998. Migration of adult Atlantic salmon Salmo salar; the effects of artificial freshets. Hydrobiologia 371/372: 339–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. van Ast, J. A., 2000. Interactive management of international river basins; experiences in Northern America and Western Europe. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth B 25: 325–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Vaughn, C. C. & C. M. Taylor, 1999. Impoundments and the decline of freshwater mussels: A case study of an extinction gradient. Conservation Biology 13: 912–920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Velinsky, D. J., K. L. Bushaw-Newton, D. A. Kreeger & T. E. Johnson, 2006. Effects of small dam removal on stream chemistry in southeastern Pennsylvania. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 25: 569–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Williams, J., 1998. Fish passage in the Columbia River, USA, its tributaries: Problems and solutions. In Jungwirth, M., S. Schmutz & S. Weiss (eds), Fish Migration and Fish Bypasses. Fishing News Book, University Press, Cambridge: 180–191.Google Scholar
  107. WWF, 2001. The Status of Wild Atlantic Salmon: A River by River assessment. WWF.Google Scholar
  108. WWF Australia, 2004. Weir Removal, a New Option for Rehabilitating our Rivers. WWF Australia, Sydney, New South Wales.Google Scholar
  109. WWF Australia, 2005. Duck Creek Crossing Removal Case Study. WWF Australia, Sydney, New South Wales.Google Scholar
  110. Youngson, A. F. & D. W. Hay, 1996. The Lives of Salmon. Swan-Hill Press, Shrewsbury.Google Scholar
  111. Zacharias, I., 2001. An alternative to conventional river management in Greece. In Nijland, H. J. & M. J. R. Cals (eds), River Restoration in Europe. Conference on River Restoration, Practical Approaches Riza Rapport Nr.: 2001.023: 303–307.Google Scholar
  112. Zataraín, J., 2001. El “hábitat jurídico” del salmón en España. In García de Leániz, C., A. Serdio & S. Consuegra (eds), El Salmón, Joya de Nuestros Ríos. Consejería de Ganadería, Agricultura y Pesca, Santander: 173–180.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. and FAO 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological Sciences, Institute of Environmental SustainabilitySwansea UniversitySwanseaUK

Personalised recommendations