, Volume 586, Issue 1, pp 343–355 | Cite as

Horizontal transport induced by upwelling in a canyon-shaped reservoir

  • Patricia Okely
  • Jörg Imberger
Primary Research Paper


Several processes associated with spatial variations in buoyancy flux and mixing set up local and lake-wide horizontal temperature gradients, that in turn drive slow gravitational currents. These motions can dominate the horizontal transport and re-distribution of biological and chemical material. Here intrusions, indicative of horizontal transport, are identified in field data from a small drinking water reservoir, and the origin and character of the flows investigated using a 3-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic model. It is shown that a horizontal temperature gradient is set up along the surface layer, due to upwelling shifting the metalimnion closer to the surface towards the upwind region, leading to a spatial variation in entrainment. The flows driven by these gradients form significant mass flux paths, enhancing exchange with the boundaries and controlling the fate of upwelled fluid. Further, the interaction of these currents with other hydrodynamic conditions is explored; namely the interaction with surface wind-driven currents, and the influence of different internal seiches generated by alternative lake bathymetries.


Lake Horizontal transport Upwelling Differential deepening Convective circulation Internal seiche 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Water Corporation of Western Australia and the Centre for Water Research Field Operations Group in obtaining the field data. The first author was a recipient of an Australian Postgraduate Award and Samaha Research Scholarship. This article represents Centre for Water Research reference ED 1755-PO.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Water ResearchUniversity of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia

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