, 581:287 | Cite as

Dredging effects on P status and phytoplankton density and composition during winter and spring in Lake Taihu, China

  • Xiuyun Cao
  • Chunlei Song
  • Qingman Li
  • Yiyong Zhou
Eutrophication in Lakes


Phytoplankton density and composition, together with phosphorus (P) concentrations and size-fractionated alkaline phosphatase activity (APA), were investigated in dredged and undredged zones in Lake Taihu from January to April 2004. P concentrations were also determined in the corresponding interstitial water. Enzyme Labeled Fluorescence (ELF) was used for localizing extracellular phosphatase on phytoplankton cell membranes in April. The increase in phytoplankton density was paralleled by a significant increase in soluble reactive P (SRP) concentrations in the water column and interstitial water at all sites from January to April, with chlorophyte gradually becoming dominant. In February, at the undredged site, more algae dominated by chlorophyte occurred in overlying water, rather than in the surface, coinciding with higher SRP concentrations in overlying and interstitial water. Therefore, P status in the bottom is important to phytoplankton development in terms of density and composition. Undredged sites had higher SRP concentrations in interstitial water than dredged sites. Furthermore, Higher APA was observed, accompanied by higher dissolved organic P (DOP) and lower total P at the undredged site in February. Enzymatic hydrolysis of DOP may have been an additional source of P for phytoplankton. In April, Schroederia sp. was ELF labeled in surface water at the dredged site, which showed markedly lower SRP concentration, but not at the undredged site with higher SRP concentration. Thus, the dredging might regulate algal density and composition in water column by reducing P bioavailability.


Phytoplankton Phosphorus Alkaline phosphatase ELF Sediment dredging Shallow lakes Eutrophication 



This work was supported by the National Key Basic Research and Development Program (2002CB412304) and the grant (2002AA601013). We also obliged to the funds from the National Science Foundation of China (20177033). This work was partly supported by Sino-Czech Scientific and Technological Cooperation––project No. 36–20. We would like to thank Jaroslav Vrba, Alena Štrojsová and Feng Weisong for their methodical help and providing facilities to use epifluorescence microscope. Many thanks are given to Li Jianqiu for the sample preparations and to Liu Jingyuan for the review of this manuscript. The thanks also go to Li Lin, Zeng hui for their kind helps in sample collecting.


  1. Boon, P. I., 1989. Organic matter degradation and nutrient regeneration in Australian freshwaters: I. Methods for exoenzyme assays in turbid aquatic environments. Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie 115: 339–359.Google Scholar
  2. Buergi, H. R., H. Buehrer & B. Keller, 2003. Long-term changes in functional properties and biodiversity of plankton in Lake Greifensee (Switzerland) in response to phosphorus reduction. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management 6: 147–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chróst, R. J., W. Siuda & G. Z. halemejko, 1984. Longterm studies on alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) in a lake with fish-aquaculture in relation to lake eutrophication and phosphorus cycle. Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie 70: 1–32.Google Scholar
  4. Cronberg, G., 1982. Changes in the phytoplankton of lake Trummen induced by restoration. Hydrobiologia 86: 185–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gage, M. A. & E. Gorham, 1985. Alkaline phosphatases activity and cellular phosphorus as an index of the phosphorus status of phytoplankton in Minnesota lakes. Freshwater Biology 15: 227–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Golterman, H. L., R. S. Clymo & M. A. M. Ohmstad, 1978. Methods for physical and chemical analysis of fresh waters. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, Handbook 8, 2nd edn., 111–117.Google Scholar
  7. Gonzáles-Gil, S., B. Keafer, R. V. M. Jovine, A. Aquilera, S. Lu & D. M. Anderson, 1998. Detection and quantification of alkaline phosphatase in single cells of phosphorus-starved marine phytoplankton. Marine Ecology Progress Series 164: 21–35.Google Scholar
  8. Graham, L. E. & L. W. Wilcox, 2000. Algae. Prentice hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, USA.Google Scholar
  9. Hu, H., R. Li, Y. Wei, C. Zhu, J. Chen & Z. Shi, 1979. Freshwater algae in China. Science Press, Peking (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  10. James, W. F., J. W. Barko, H. L. Eakin & P. W. Sorge, 2002. Phosphorus budget and management strategies for an urban Wisconsin lake. Lake and Reservoir Management 18: 149–163.Google Scholar
  11. Jeppesen, E., P. Kristensen, J. P. Jensen, M. Soendergaard, E. Mortensen & T. Lauridsen, 1990. Recovery resilience following a reduction in external phosphorus loading of shallow, eutrophic Danish lakes: duration, regulating factors and methods for overcoming resilience. 3. Int. Workshop on Ecosystem Research in Freshwater Environment Recovery, 26–29.Google Scholar
  12. Karjalainen, H., S. Seppälä & M. Walls, 1997–1998. Nitrogen, phosphorus and Daphnia grazing in controlling phytoplankton biomass and composition–an experimental study. Hydrobiologia 363: 309–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Klotz, R. L., 1985. Influence of light on the alkaline phosphatase activity of Selenastrum capricornutum (Chlorophyceae) in streams. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 42: 384–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Knuttila, S., O.-P. Pietil̈ainen & L. Kauppi, 1994. Nutrient balances and phytoplankton dynamics in two agriculturally loaded shallow lakes. Hydrobiologia 275/276: 359–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Labry, C., A. Herbland & D. Delmas, 2002. The role of phosphorus on planktonic production of the Gironde plume waters in the Bay of Biscay. Journal of Plankton Research 24: 97–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lessmann, D., A. Fyson & B. Nixdorf, 2003. Experimental eutrophication of a shallow acidic mining lake and effects on the phytoplankton. Hydrobiologia 506–509: 753–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Levine, M. A. & S. C. Whalen, 2001. Nutrient limitation of phytoplankton production in Alaskan Arctic foothill lakes. Hydrobiologia 455: 189–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Murphy, J. & P. Riley, 1962. A modified single solution method of the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Analytica Chimica Acta 27: 1–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nedoma, J., A. Štrojsová, J. Vrba, J. Komárková & K. Šimek, 2003. Extracellular phosphatase activity of natural plankton studied with ELF97 phosphate: fluorescence quantification and labelling kinetics. Environmental Microbiology 5: 462–472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nuernberg, G. K, R. W. Bachmann, J. R. Jones, R. H. Peters & D. M. Soballe, 1995. Modeling phosphorus in lakes with possible sediment P release, case studies. Lake and Reservoir Management 11(2): 176.Google Scholar
  21. Ortega-Mayagoitial, E., C. Rojo & M. A. Rodrigo, 2003. Controlling factors of phytoplankton assemblages in wetlands: an experimental approach. Hydrobiologia 502: 177–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Overbeck, J., 1991. Early studies on ecto- and extracellular enzymes in aquatic environments. In Chróst, R. J. (ed.), Microbial enzymes in aquatic environments. Springer Verlag, New York, 29–59.Google Scholar
  23. Pan, Y. D., R. Stevenson, V. Jan, S. J. Panchabi & C. J. Richardson, 2000. Changes in algal assemblages along observed and experimental phosphorus gradients in a subtropical wetland, USA. Freshwater Biology 44: 339–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pillsbury, R. W., R. L. Lowe, Y. D. Pan & J. L. Greenwood, 2002. Changes in the benthic algal community and nutrient limitation in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, during the invasion of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Journal of the North American Benthological Society 21: 238–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pollingher, U., 1986. Non-siliceous algae in a five meter core from Lake Kinneret (Israel). Hydrobiologia 143: 213–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Poulickova, A., L. Pechar & M. Kummel, 1998. Influence of sediment removal on fishpond phytoplankton. Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie Supplement 124: 107–120.Google Scholar
  27. Qin, B., P. Xu, Q. Wu, L. Luo & Y. Zhang, 2007. Environmental issues of Lake Taihu, China. Hydrobiologia 581: 3–14.Google Scholar
  28. Rengefors, K., K. Pettersson, T. Blenckner & D. M. Anderson, 2001. Species-specific alkaline phosphatase activity in freshwater spring phytoplankton: application of a novel method. Journal of Plankton Research 23: 435–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Roberts, E., J. Kroker, S. Koerner & A. Nicklisch, 2003. The role of periphyton during the re-colonization of a shallow lake with submerged macrophytes. Hydrobiologia 506–509: 525–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sala, M. M. & H. Guede, 1995. Influence of algae and crustacean zooplankton on patterns of microbial hydrolytic enzyme activities––an experimental approach. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 48: 143–154.Google Scholar
  31. Štrojsová, A., J. Vrba, J. Nedoma, J. Komárková & P. Znachor, 2003. Seasonal study on expression of extracellular phosphatases in the phytoplankton of an eutrophic reservoir. European Journal of Phycology 38: 295–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Vrba, J., J. Komárková & V. Vyhnálek, 1993. Enhanced activity of alkaline phosphatases––phytoplankton response to epilimnetic phosphorus depletion. Water Science and Technology 28: 15–24.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiuyun Cao
    • 1
  • Chunlei Song
    • 1
  • Qingman Li
    • 1
  • Yiyong Zhou
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of HydrobiologyThe Chinese Academy of SciencesWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations