Advertisement

Hydrobiologia

, Volume 578, Issue 1, pp 7–16 | Cite as

Green algae in Lake Tanganyika: is morphological variation a response to seasonal changes?

  • Maya P. Stoyneva
  • Jean-Pierre Descy
  • Wim Vyverman
Phytoplankton Workshop

Abstract

In the framework of a planktological and ecological study in Lake Tanganyika, East Africa (CLIMLAKE, 2001–2005), variations of cell abundance and size were observed in a green alga, Eremosphaera tanganyikae, at two study sites, one in the north basin of the lake (off Kigoma, Tanzania) and the other in the south basin (off Mpulungu, Zambia). Whereas most green algae developed better in the rainy season and in the northern part of the lake, Eremosphaera developed better in the southern basin, in the dry season. It also exhibited large variations in cell abundance and cell size, with maxima in the middle of the dry season, which may be related to increased phosphorus availability. Moreover, increase in cell size (up to 80 μm in length), without notable change in S/V ratio, may provide the alga with resistance to grazing by copepods, which reach maximal abundance during the dry season.

Keywords

Lake Tanganyika Morphological variation Eremosphaera tanganyikae Life strategy Surface area/Volume ratio 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bertrand, C., Franquet, E., Fayolle, S., Cazaubon, A. 2003A new approach to biodiversity: morphological plasticity of a fresh-water diatomComptes Rendus Biologies326107120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brönmark, C. & L. A. Hansson, 2004. The Biology of Lakes and ponds, 2nd edn., Oxford University, 285 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Coulter, G. W., 1991. Lake Tanganyika and its life. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Debat, V., David, P. 2001Mapping phenotypes: canalization, plasticity and developmental stabilityTrends in Ecology and Evolution16555561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Descy, J. P., Hardy, M. A., Stenuite, S., Pirlot, S., Leporcq, B., Kimirei, I., Sekadende, B., Mwaitega, S. R., Sinyenza, D. 2005Phytoplankton pigments and community composition in Lake TanganyikaFreshwater Biology50668684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gomez, N., Riera, J. L., Sabater, S. 1995Ecology and morphological variability of Aulacoseira granulata (Bacillariophyceae) in Spanish reservoirsJournal of Ultrastructural Research17116Google Scholar
  7. Graham, L. E., Wilcox, L. W. 2000AlgaePrentice HallNew Jersey640Google Scholar
  8. Hecky, R. E., 1991. The pelagic ecosystem. In Coulter, G. W. (ed.), Lake Tanganyika and its life. Oxford University Press, 90–110.Google Scholar
  9. Hecky, R. E., Fee, E. J. 1981Primary production and rates of algal growth in lake TanganyikaLimnology and Oceanography26532547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hecky, R. E., Kling, H. J. 1987Phytoplankton ecology of the great lakes in the rift valleys of Central AfricaArchiv für Hydrobiologie Beiheft Ergebnisse Limnologie25197228Google Scholar
  11. Hessen, D. O., Donk, E. 1993Morphological changes in Scenedesmus induced by substances released from Daphnia Archiv für Hydrobiologie127129140Google Scholar
  12. Hutchinson G. E., 1957. A Treatise on Limnology, I. Geography, Physics and Chemistry. New York, 1015 pp.Google Scholar
  13. Kaputska, L. A., Rosowski, J. A. 1976The response of a Cylindrospermum species to different sources of nitrogenProceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science564953Google Scholar
  14. Kilham, P., Kilham, S. 1990Endless summer: internal loading processes dominate nutrient cycling in tropical lakesFreshwater Biology23379389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kingsolver, J. G., Pfennig, D., Servedio, M. R. 2002Migration, local adaptation and the evolution of plasticityTrends in Ecology and Evolution17540541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lampert, W., Rothhaupt, K. O., Elert, E. 1994Chemical induction of colony formation in a green alga (Scenedesmus acutus) by grazers (Daphnia)Limnology & Oceanography3915431550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Langenberg, V., Sarvala, J., Roijackers, R. 2003Effect of wind induced water movements on nutrients, chlorophyll-a, and primary production in Lake TanganyikaAquatic Ecosystem Health and Management6279288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Luo W. & L. Krienitz, 2005. Phenotype versus genotype in Chlorellaceae. In Abstracts XVII International Botanical Congress, Vienna, Austria, Europe, Austria Center Vienna, 17–23 July 2005, p. 117.Google Scholar
  19. Luo, W., Krienitz, L., Pflugmacher, S., Walz, N. 2005Genus and species concept in Chlorella and Micractinium (Chlorophyta, Chlorellaceae): genotype versus phenotypical variability under ecosystem conditionsVerhandlungen Internationale Vereinigung für theoretische und angemandte Limnologie29170173Google Scholar
  20. Lürling, M. 1998Effect of grazing-associated infochemicals on growth and morphological development in Scenedesmus acutus (Chlorophyceae)Journal of Phycology34578586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lürling, M. 2003aPhenotypic plasticity in the green algae Desmodesmus and Scenedesmus with special reference to the induction of defensive morphologyAnnales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology3985101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lürling, M. 2003bThe effect of substances from different zooplankton species and fish on the induction of defensive morphology in the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus Journal of Plankton Research25979989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Malone, T., 1980. Algal Size. In Morris, I. (ed.), The Physiological Ecology of Phytoplankton, Studies in Ecology 7: 433–463.Google Scholar
  24. Melack, J. M. 1996Development of tropical limnologyProceedings of the Internatioanl Association for Theoretical and Applied Limnology26211217Google Scholar
  25. Morales, E. A., Trainor, F. R., Schlichting, C. D. 2002Evolutionary and Ecological Implications of Plastic Responses of AlgaeConstancea83127Google Scholar
  26. Morris, I., 1980. Preface. In Morris, I. (ed.), The Physiological Ecology of Phytoplankton, Studies in Ecology, 7: ix-x.Google Scholar
  27. Naithani, J., Deleersnijder, E., Plisnier, P. D. 2002Origin of intraseasonal variability in Lake TanganyikaGeophysical Research Letters2920932096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Naithani, J., Deleersnijder, E., Plisnier, P. D. 2003Analysis of wind-induced thermocline oscillations of Lake TanganyikaEnvironmental Fluid Mechanics32339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Naselli-Flores, L., Barone, R. 2000Phytoplankton dynamics & structure: a comparative analysis in natural and man-made water bodies of different trophic stateHydrobiologia4386574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Naselli-Flores, L., Barone, R. 2003Steady-state assemblage in a Mediterranean hypertrophic reservoir The role of Microcystis ecomorphological variability in maintaning an apparent equilibriumHydrobiologia502133143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Naselli-Flores, L., Padisak, J., Albay, M. 2007Shape and size in phytoplankton ecology: do they matter?Hydrobiologia578157161Google Scholar
  32. Norberg, J., Swanney, D. P., Dushoff, J., Lin, J., Casagrandi, R., Levin, S. A. 2001Phenotypic diversity and ecosystem functioning in changing environments A theoretical frameworkProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS)98116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. O’Brien, K. R., Meyer, D. L., Waite, A. M., Ivey, G. N., Hamilton, D. P. 2004Disaggregation of Microcystis aeruginosa colonies under turbulent mixing: laboratory experiments in a grid-stirred tankHydrobiologia519143152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Padisák, J., Sorocki-Pinter, E., Rezner, Z. 2003Sinking properties of some phytoplankton shapes and the relation of form resistance to morphological diversity of phytoplankton––an experimental studyHydrobiologia500243257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Piersma, T., Drent, J. 2003Phenotypic flexibility and the evolution of organismal designTrends in Ecology and Evolution18228233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pigliucci, M. 1996How organisms respond to environmental changes: from phenotypes to molecules (and vice versa)Trends in Ecology and Evolution11168173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Plisnier, P. D. & J. P. Descy, 2005. CLIMLAKE: Climate variability as recorded in Lake Tanganyika. Global change, ecosystems and biodiversity SPSD 2, Research project EV/13/02. Final Report (2001–2005). Science Policy Office of Belgium Brussels: 105 pp.Google Scholar
  38. Plisnier, P. D., Chitamwebwa, D., Mwape, L., Tsibangu, K., Landenberg, V., Coenen, E. 1999Limnological annual cycle inferred from physical-chemical fluctuations at three stations of Lake TanganyikaHydrobiologia4074558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Raven, J. A. 1986Plasticity in algaeSymposium of the Society of Experimental Biology40347372Google Scholar
  40. Raven, P. H., Evert, R. F., Eichhorn, S. E. 2005Biology of Plants7W. H. Freeman and Company PublishersNew York686Google Scholar
  41. Reynolds, & C. S., 1997. Vegetation Processes in the Pelagic: A Model for Ecosystem Theory. In Kinne, O. (ed.), Excellence in Ecology 9: 1–371.Google Scholar
  42. Reynolds, C. S., Harris, G. P., Gouldney, D. N. 1985Comparison of carbon-specific growth rates and rates of cellular increase of phytoplankton in large limnetic enclosuresJournal of Plankton Research7791820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Reynolds, C. S., Huszar, V., Kruk, C., Naselli-Flores, L., Melo, S. 2002Towards a functional classification of the freshwater phytoplanktonJournal of Plankton Research24417428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sarvala, J., Salonen, K., Järvinen, M., Aro, E., Huttula, T., Kotilainen, P., Kurki, H., Langenberg, V., Mannini, P., Peltonen, A., Plisnier, P. D., Vuorinen, I., Mölsä, H. , Lindqvist, O. V. 1999Trophic structure of Lake Tanganyika: carbon flows in the pelagic food webHydrobiologia407140173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Scheiner, S. M. 1998The genetics of phenotypic plasticity VII Evolution in a spatially-structured environmentJournal of Evolutionary Biology11303320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schlichting, C. D., Pigliucci, M. 1995Gene regulation, quantitative genetics and the evolution of reaction normsEvolutionary Ecology9154168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schlüter, M., Groeneweg, J., Soeder, C. J. 1987Impact of rotifer grazing on population dynamics of green microalgae in high-rate pondsWater Research2112931297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schubert, E., 2005. Phenotypic plasticity in algae: useful rather than problematical. In Abstracts XVII International Botanical Congress, Vienna, Austria, Europe, Austria Center Vienna, 17–23 July 2005, 118 pp.Google Scholar
  49. Spigel, R. H., Coulter, G. W. 1996Comparison of hydrology and physical limnology of the East African Great Lakes: Tanganyika, Malawi, Kivu and Turkana (with reference to some North American Great Lakes)Johnson, T. C.Odada, E. O. eds. The limnology, climatology and paleoclimatology of the East African LakesGordon & Breach PublAmsterdam103139Google Scholar
  50. Sterner, R. W. 1989The role of grazers in phytoplankton successionSommer, U. eds. Plankton Ecology. Succession in plankton communitiesSpringer-VerlagBerlin, Heildelberg, New York107170Google Scholar
  51. Stoyneva, M. P., Gärtner, G., Cocquyt, C., Vyverman, W. 2005Closteriopsis petkovii – a new green alga from Lake Tanganyika (Africa)Phyton (Horn, Austria)25237247Google Scholar
  52. Stoyneva, M. P., Gärtner, G., Cocquyt, C., Vyverman, W. 2006Eremosphaera tanganyikae (Trebouxiophyceae) a new alga from Lake Tanganyika (Africa)Belgian Journal of Botany13992102Google Scholar
  53. Talling, J. F. 1986The seasonality of phytoplankton in African lakesMunawar, M.Talling, J. F. eds. Seasonality of freshwater phytoplanktonW. JunkDordrecht139160Google Scholar
  54. Trainor, F. R 1998Scenedesmus: phenotypic plasticityBeihefte zur Nova Hedwigia1171367Google Scholar
  55. Via, S., Gomulkiewicz, R., Dejong, G., Scheiner, S. M., Schlichting, C. D., Vantienderen, P. H. 1995Adaptive phenotypic plasticity––consensus and controversyTrends in Ecology and Evolution10212217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ellert, E., Frank, A. 1999Colony formation in Scenedesmus: grazer–mediated release and chemical features of the infochemicalJournal of Plankton Research21789804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zirbel, M. J., Veron, F., Latz, M. I. 2000The reversible effect of flow on the morphology of Ceratocorys horrida (Peridiniales, Dinophyta)Journal of Phycology364658CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maya P. Stoyneva
    • 1
  • Jean-Pierre Descy
    • 2
  • Wim Vyverman
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of BotanyUniversity of SofiaSofiaBulgaria
  2. 2.Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology, URBO, Department of BiologyUniversity of NamurNamurBelgium
  3. 3.Protistology and Aquatic Ecology, Department of BiologyUniversity of GhentGhentBelgium

Personalised recommendations