, Volume 568, Issue 1, pp 275–286 | Cite as

Interrelated seasonal shifts in acid–base and oxidation–reduction systems that determine chemical stratification in three dissimilar English Lake Basins

  • J. F. Talling
Primary Research Paper


Chemical changers associated with seasonal stratification are described from three English lake basins of widely differing depth and algal production. They are biologically driven, linked to the acid–base system (pH, titration alkalinity, CO2 distribution) and to oxidation–reduction reactions (O2 depletion, CO2 reduction and generation, HCO 3 generation). The development of anoxia, in the shallowest and most productive basin, is associated with the generation of HCO 3 , increase of electrical conductance, and some elevation of pH. This connection is lacking in the deeper basins with less complete depletion of O2. Vertical gradients of pH, some exceeding 2.5 units, develop during summer stratification in all three basins. The largest are due to the photosynthetic depletion of CO2 in the epilimnion by dense concentrations of phytoplankton. Long-term records indicate an accentuation during lake eutrophication. There is also some increase of pH in hypolimnetic water when anoxic, with free CO2 partly converted to HCO 3 . Depth-profiles of conductance reflect the production of HCO 3 in deep anoxic regions. They can also indicate, as by minima, the descent of relatively cool flood-water.


alkalinity anoxia pH photosynthesis redox 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Freshwater Biological AssociationAmbleside, CumbriaUK

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