, Volume 546, Issue 1, pp 353–360 | Cite as

Combined Effects of Algal (Chlorella vulgaris) Food Level and Temperature on the Demography of Brachionus havanaensis (Rotifera): a Life Table Study

  • E. Lucía Pavón-Meza
  • S. S. S. Sarma
  • S. Nandini


We evaluated the combined effects of food (0.5 × 106, 1.0 × 106 and 2.0 × 106 cells ml−1 of Chlorella vulgaris) and temperature (15, 20 and 25 °C) on life history variables of B. havanaensis. Regardless of Chlorella density there was a steep fall in the survivorship of B. havanaensis at 25 °C. Both food level and temperature affected the fecundity of B. havanaensis. At any given food level, rotifers cultured at 15 °C showed extended but low offspring production. At 25 °C, offspring production was elevated, the duration of egg laying reduced and the fecundity was higher during the latter part of the reproductive period. The effect of food level was generally additive, at any given temperature, and higher densities of Chlorella resulted in higher offspring production. Average lifespan, life expectancy at birth and generation time were 2–3 times longer at 15 °C than at 25 °C. At 20 °C, these remained at intermediate levels. The shortest generation time (about 4 days) was observed at 25 °C. Gross and net reproductive rates and the rate of population increase (r) increased with increasing temperature and generally, at any given temperature, higher algal food levels contributed to higher values in these variables. The r varied from 0.11 to 0.66. The survival patterns and lower rates of reproduction at 15 °C suggest that the winter temperatures (10–15 °C) prevailing in many waterbodies in Mexico City allow this species to sustain throughout the year under natural conditions.


temperature food concentration life history rotifer Brachionus 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahlstrom, E. H. 1940A revision of the rotatorian genera Brachionus and Platyias with descriptions of the new species and two new varietiesBulletin of the American Museum of Natural History57143184Google Scholar
  2. Anaya-Soto, A., Sarma, S. S. S., Nandini, S. 2003Longevity of the freshwater anostracan Streptocephalus mackini (Crustacea: Anostraca) in relation to food (Chlorella vulgaris) concentrationFreshwater Biology48432439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anonymous, 1985. Methods of Measuring the acute Toxicity of Effluents to Freshwater and Marine Organisms. US Environment Protection Agency. EPA/600&4–85/013Google Scholar
  4. Borowitzka, M. A., Borowitzka, L. J. 1988Micro-algal BiotechnologyCambridge University PressLondonGoogle Scholar
  5. De Mott, W. R., Gulati, R. D., Van Donk, E. 2001Effects of dietary phosphorus deficiency on the abundance, phosphorus balance, and growth of Daphnia cucullata in three hypereutrophic Dutch lakesLimnology and Oceanography4618711880Google Scholar
  6. Ridder, M. 1981Some considerations on the geographical distribution of rotifersHydrobiologia85209225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Duncan, A. 1989Food limitation and body size in the life cycle of planktonic rotifers and cladoceransHydrobiologia186/1871128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Edmondson, W. T. 1965Reproductive rate of planktonic rotifers as related to food and temperatureEcological Monographs3561111Google Scholar
  9. Enrique-García, C., Nandini, S., Sarma, S. S. S. 2003Food type effects on the population growth patterns of littoral rotifers and cladoceransActa Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica31120133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Forbes, V. E., Calow, P. 1999Is the per capita rate of increase a good measure of population-level effects in ecotoxicology?Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry1815441556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Garza-Mouriño, G., Silva-Briano, M., Nandini, S., Sarma, S. S. S., Castellanos-Páez, M. E. 2005Morphological and morphometrical variations of selected rotifer species in responce to predation: a seasonal study of selected brachionid species from Lake Xochimilco (Mexico)Hydrobiologia546169179Google Scholar
  12. Guisande, C. N., Mazuelos,  1991Reproductive pattern of Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas at different food concentrationsJournal of Plankton Research13279286Google Scholar
  13. Gulati, R. D., DeMott, W. R. 1999The role of food quality for zooplankton: remarks on the state-of-the-art, perspectives and prioritiesFreshwater Biology38753768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Halbach, U. 1973Life table data and population dynamics of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas as influenced by periodically oscillating temperatureWieser, W eds. Effects of Temperature on Ectothermic OrganismsSpringer VerlagBerlin219228Google Scholar
  15. Flores-Burgos, F., S. S. S. Sarma & S. Nandini, 2003. Estudio preliminar sobre la fauna de rotı’ feros de Xochimilco (Me’ xico). El agua de cuenca de Me’ xico. Sus problemas histo’ ricos y perspectivas de solucio’ n. Proceedings of the International Conference on XochimilcoEcological Park of Xochimilco, U.A.M. Xochimilco, Mexico City, Mexico, Vol. 1, 163–171.Google Scholar
  16. King, C. E. 1982The evolution of lifespanDingle Hegmann, H. J. P. eds. Evolution and Genetics of Life HistoriesSpringer VerlagNew York121128Google Scholar
  17. Krebs, C. J. 1985Ecology3Harper & RowNew York800Google Scholar
  18. Nandini, S., Pérez-Chávez, R., Sarma, S. S. S. 2003The effect of prey morphology on the feeding behaviour and population growth of the predatory rotifer Asplanchna sieboldi: a case study using five species of Brachionus (Rotifera)Freshwater Biology4821312140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nogrady, T., Wallace, R. L., Snell, T. W. 1993Rotifera 1. Biology, Ecology and Systematics. Guides to the Identification of the Microinvertebrates of the Continental Waters of the World, SBP Academic PublishersThe Hague142Google Scholar
  20. Ramírez-García, P., Nandini, S., Sarma, S. S. S., Robles-Valderrama, E., Cuesta, I., Hurtado-Maria, D. 2002Seasonal variations of zooplankton abundance in the freshwater reservoir Valle de Bravo (Mexico)Hydrobiologia46799108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ramos-Rodríguez, E., Conde-Porcuna, J. M. 2003Nutrient limitation on a planktonic rotifer: life history consequences and starvation resistanceLimnology and Oceanography48933938Google Scholar
  22. Rothhaupt, K. O. 1990Population growth rates of two closely related rotifer species: effects of food quantity, particle size, and nutritional qualityFreshwater Biology23561570Google Scholar
  23. Sanoamuang, L. O. 1993The effect of temperature on morphology, life history and growth rate of Filinia terminalis (Plate) and Filinia cf. pejleri Hutchinson in cultureFreshwater Biology30257267Google Scholar
  24. Sarma, S. S. S., Rao, T. R. 1990The population dynamics of Brachionus patulus Müller in relation to food and temperatureProceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences (Animal Sciences)99335343Google Scholar
  25. Sarma, S. S. S., Rao, T. R. 1991The combined effects of food and temperature on the life history parameters of Brachionus patulus Muller (Rotifera)Internationale Revue der gesamten Hydrobiologie76225239Google Scholar
  26. Sarma, S. S. S., Nandini, S. 2001Life table demography and population growth of Brachionus variabilis Hampel, 1896 in relation to algal (Chlorella vulgaris) densityHydrobiologia446/4477583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sarma, S. S. S., Nandini, S. 2002Comparative life table demography and population growth of Brachionus macracanthus Daday, 1905 and Platyias quadricornis Ehrenberg, 1832 (Rotifera, Brachionidae) in relation to algal (Chlorella vulgaris) food densityActa Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica30128140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sarma, S. S. S., Fernández-Araiza, M. A., Nandini, S. 1999Competition between Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas and Brachionus patulus (Müller) (Rotifera) in relation to algal food concentration and initial population densityAquatic Ecology33339345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sarma, S. S. S., Larios-Jurado, P. S., Nandini, S. 2001Effect of three food types on the population growth of Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus patulus (Rotifera: Brachionidae)Revista de Biología Tropical497582Google Scholar
  30. Sarma, S. S. S., Pavón-Meza, E. L., Nandini, S. 2003aComparative population growth and life table demography of the rotifer Asplanchna girodi at different prey (Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus havanaensis) (Rotifera) densitiesHydrobiologia491309320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sarma, S. S. S., Trujillo-Hernández, H. E., Nandini, S. 2003bPopulation growth of herbivorous rotifers and their predator (Asplanchna) on urban wastewatersAquatic Ecology37243250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sokal, R. R., Rohlf, F. J. 2000BiometryW.H. Freeman and CompanySan FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  33. Torres-Orozco, B. R. E., Zanatta, S. A. 1998Species composition, abundance and distribution of zooplankton in a tropical eutrophic lake: Lake Catemaco, MexicoRevista de Biología Tropical46285296Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Lucía Pavón-Meza
    • 1
  • S. S. S. Sarma
    • 1
  • S. Nandini
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Aquatic Zoology Division of Research and Postgraduate StudiesNational Autonomous University of Mexico Campus IztacalaTlalnepantlaMexico
  2. 2.UIICSE, Division of Research and Postgraduate StudiesNational Autonomous University of Mexico; Campus IztacalaTlalnepantlaMexico

Personalised recommendations