Advertisement

Hydrobiologia

, Volume 549, Issue 1, pp 33–42 | Cite as

Remarkable Salinity Tolerance of Seven Species of Naked Amoebae (gymnamoebae)

  • Gwen Hauer
  • Andrew Rogerson
Primary Research Paper

Abstract

The salinity tolerance of naked amoebae collected from sites ranging from ca. 0‰ to 160‰ were compared in laboratory experiments. Amoebae were collected from hypersaline ponds around the perimeter of the Salton Sea, California, where salinities averaged 160‰, and directly from the shoreline waters of the Sea where salinities were generally between 44 and 48‰. Naked amoebae were also collected from the intertidal zone of a Florida beach, a habitat subject (on occasion) to salinity fluctuations within the range 6–85‰. From these combined sites, 6 clones of amoebae were isolated for salinity tolerance experiments (2 marine beach isolates, 2 Salton Sea isolates, and 2 hypersaline pond isolates). A seventh clone, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, a common freshwater/soil amoeba, was obtained from a Culture Collection. Laboratory experiments compared the effects of gradually changing culture salinity versus no salinity acclimatization. Growth rate and culture yield were used as indices of effect. Generally, amoebae were tolerant over a wide range of salinity conditions (in terms of growth and yield) and were not markedly influenced by pre-conditioning to salinity changes throughout the experiments. Overall, the freshwater amoeba Acanthamoeba grew between 0 and 12‰, the marine clones grew in the range of 2–120‰, and the Salton Sea clones reproduced between 0 and 138 ‰. The hypersaline clones were the most resilient and grew between 0 and 270‰ salt. The survival and activity of large populations of naked amoebae in sites subject to salinity fluctuations suggest that they should be considered in future studies to better understand their, as yet, undefined ecological role.

Keywords:

growth rates Salton Sea hypersaline Acanthamoeba Platyamoeba 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, O. R., Rogerson, A. 1995Annual abundances and growth potential of gymnamoebae in the Hudson estuary with comparative data from the Firth of ClydeEuropean Journal of Protistology31223233Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, O. R., Nerad, T. A., Cole, J. C. 2003Platyamoeba nucleolilateralis n. sp. from the Chesapeake Bay RegionJournal of Eukaryotic Microbiology505760CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Booton, G. C., Rogerson, A., Bonilla, T. D., Seal, D. V., Kelly, D. J., Beattie, T. K., Tomilinson, A., Lares-Villa, F., Fuerst, P. A., Byers, T. J. 2004Molecular and physiological evaluation of subtropical environmental isolates of Acanthamoeba spp., causal agent of Acanthamoeba keratitisJournal of Eukaryotic Microbiology51192200CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Boyer, J. N., Fourqurean, J. W., Jones, R. D. 1997Spatial characterization of water quality in Florida Bay and Whitewater Bay by multivariate analyses: zones of similar influenceEstuaries20743758Google Scholar
  5. Butler, H., Rogerson, A. 1995Temporal and spatial abundance of naked amoebae (gymnamoebae) in marine benthic sediments of the Clyde Sea area, ScotlandJournal of Eukaryotic Microbiology42724730Google Scholar
  6. Butts, H. E. 1934The effect of certain salts of sea water upon reproduction in the marine amoeba, Flabellula mira SchaefferPhysiological Zoology8273289Google Scholar
  7. Capriulo, G. M., 1990. Ecology of Marine Protozoa, Oxford University Press, Inc. New York, NY: 10016Google Scholar
  8. Elazari-Volcani, B. 1943A dimastigamoeba in the bed of the Dead SeaNature152275277Google Scholar
  9. Finlay, B. J., Esteban, G. F., Fenchel, T. 2004Protist diversity is differentProtist1551522CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Finley, H. E. 1930Toleration of freshwater Protozoa to increased salinityEcology11337347Google Scholar
  11. Friend, M. 2002Avian disease in the Salton SeaHydrobiologia473293306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Garstecki, T., Arndt, H. 2000Seasonal abundances and community structure of benthic rhizopods in shallow lagoons of the southern Baltic SeaEuropean Journal of Protistology36103115Google Scholar
  13. Gonzalez, M. R., Hart, C. M., Verfaillio, J. R., Hurlbert, S. H. 1998Salinity and fish effects on Salton Sea microecosystems, water chemistry and nutrient cyclingHydrobiologia381105128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hauer, G., Rogerson, A., Anderson, O. R. 2001Platyamoeba pseudovannellida n. sp., a naked amoeba with wide salt tolerance isolated from the Salton Sea, CaliforniaJournal of Eukaryotic Microbiology48663669CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hurlbert, A. H., K. Sturm, & S. H. Hurlbert, 2001. Fish and fish eating birds at the Salton Sea: post trends and future prospects. American Society of Limnology 2001, Aquatic Sciences Meeting, Albuquerque, NM, USA: Number 0005431Google Scholar
  16. Javor, B. J. 1983aPlanktonic standing crop and nutrients in a saltern ecosystemLimnology and Oceanography1217Google Scholar
  17. Javor, B. J. 1983bNutrients and ecology of Western salt and Saltern brinesSchreiban, Bland Harber, H. L. eds. Sixth International Symposium on SaltThe Salt InstituteToronto195205Google Scholar
  18. Javor, B. 1989Hypersaline Environments, Microbiology and BiochemistrySpringer-VerlagNew York328Google Scholar
  19. Jellison, R. 1996Organic matter accumulation in sediments of hypersaline Mono Lake during a period of changing salinityLimnology and Oceanography4115391544Google Scholar
  20. Jones, D. T. 1944Two protozoans from the Great Salt LakeBulletin of the University of Utah35111Google Scholar
  21. Kushner, D., 1992. Growth and nutrition of halophilic bacteria. In Vreeland, R. & L. Hochstein (eds), Biology of Halophilic Bacteria. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FlGoogle Scholar
  22. Mast, S. O., Hopkins, D. L. 1941Regulation of the water content of Amoeba mira and adaptation to changes in the osmotic concentrations of the surrounding mediumJournal of Cellular and Comparative Physiology413148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mayes, D. F., Rogerson, A., Marchant, H., Laybourn-Parry, J. 1998Temporal abundance of naked bacterivore amoebae in coastal east AntarcticaEstuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science46565575Google Scholar
  24. Mianping, Z., S. H. Hurlbert & W. D. Williams, 1998. (eds.) Saline Lakes VI. Opening Ceremony Sixth International Symposium on Salt Lakes, Beijing, P.R. China. Hydrobiologia 381: ix–xGoogle Scholar
  25. Oren, A. 1999Microbiological studies in the Dead Sea: future challenges toward understanding of life at the limit of salt concentrationsHydrobiologia40519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Oshima, N., Takeda, F., Ishii, K. 1986Responses of freshwater amoebae to salinity changesComparative and Biochemical Physiology85a395399Google Scholar
  27. Pack, D. A. 1919Two ciliata of Great Salt LakeBiological Bulletin36273282Google Scholar
  28. Page, F. C. 1980A key to marine species of Vannella (Sarcodina Gymnamoebia), with descriptions of new speciesJournal of Marine Biological Association, U.K.60929946Google Scholar
  29. Page, F. C. 1983Marine GymnamoebaeInstitute of Terrestrial Ecology, Culture Collection of Algae and ProtozoaCambridge, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  30. Patterson, D. J., A. G. Simpson & A. Rogerson, 2002. Amoebae of Uncertain Affinities. In The Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa Second Edition. Allen Press Inc., Kansas: 804–827Google Scholar
  31. Por, F. D. 1980A classification of hypersaline waters, based on trophic criteriaMarine Ecology1121131Google Scholar
  32. Post, F. J. 1977The microbial ecology of the Great Salt LakeMicrobial Ecology3143165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Post, F., Borowitzka, L. J., Borowitzka, M. A., Mackay, B., Moulton, T. 1983The protozoa of a Western Australian hypersaline lagoonHydrobiologia10595113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rogerson, A. 1991On the abundance of marine naked amoebae on the surfaces of five species of macroalgaeFEMS Microbiology Ecology85301312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rogerson, A., Laybourn-Parry, J. 1992The abundance of marine naked amoebae in the water column of the Clyde estuaryEstuarine Coastal and Shelf Science34187196Google Scholar
  36. Rogerson, A., Gwaltney, C. 2000High numbers of naked amoebae in the planktonic waters of a mangrove stand in Southern Florida, U.S.AJournal of Eukaryotic Microbiology47235241CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Rogerson, A., Hannah, F., Hauer, G., Cowie, P. 2000Numbers of naked amoebae inhabiting the intertidal zone of two geographically separate sandy beachesJournal of the Marine Biological Association UK80731732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rogerson, A., Hauer, G. 2002Naked amoebae (Protozoa) of the Salton Sea, CaliforniaHydrobiologia473161177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sawyer, Thomas K. 1975Marine amoebae from surface waters of Chincoteague Bay, Virginia: one new genus and eleven new species within the families Thecamoebidae and HyalodiscidaeTransactions of the American Microscopical Society94305333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Schaeffer, A. 1926Taxonomy of Amoebas, with descriptions of 39 marine and freshwater speciesPapers of the Department Marine Biology, Carnegie Institute, Washington D.C.243116Google Scholar
  41. Smirnov, A. V. 2002Vannella ebro n. sp. (Lobosea, Gymnamoebae) Isolated from cyanobacterial mats in SpainEuropean Journal of Protistology37147153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Stanier, R. Y., Adelberg, E. A., Ingraham, J. 1976The Microbial WorldPrentice-Hall Inc.New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  43. Steinhorn, I. 1985The disappearance of the long term stratifications of the Dead SeaLimnology and Oceanography30451472Google Scholar
  44. Stephens, D. W. 1990Changes in lake levels, salinity and the biological community of Great Salt Lake, Utah, 1847–1987Hydrobiologia197139146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Vorhies, C. T. 1917Notes of the fauna of the Great Salt LakesAmerican Naturalists51494499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Williams, W. C. 1981Inland salt lakes: an introductionHydrobiologia81114CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Oceanographic Center of Nova Southeastern University Dania BeachUSA

Personalised recommendations