Power Technology and Engineering

, Volume 49, Issue 4, pp 310–318 | Cite as

A Comparative Analysis of Technologies for Covering Peak Loads in the Power System

  • A. Z. Zhuk
  • Yu. A. Zeigarnik
  • E. A. Buzoverov
  • A. E. Sheindlin
  • Yu. N. Kucherov

One of the key and so far completely unsolved problem of modern power engineering is minimizing the cost of compensating for the imbalance between the generated and consumed powers in power systems. In addition to traditional regulation methods using hydroelectric and thermal power plants, the possibilities of storing power in different forms, including stationary electrochemical storage systems, are being more and more widely used at present. It is planned in future to use the on-board storage batteries of electric vehicles (V2G technology) for this purpose. Traditional and promising future technologies for compensating load fluctuations in electric power systems have their own niche applications and costs under different operating conditions. In this paper we provide comparative estimates of the specific costs when compensating load fluctuations of different duration using traditional technologies, which use flexible power units and peak power plants, and also technologies based on the use of electrochemical electric power storage. The costs for 1 kW h of peak electric power and the costs in theory per 1 kW of peak power are estimated. As follows from the results of the calculations, the use of electrochemical storage is economically useful for continuous operating times of less than 1 h. To cover longer electric consumption fluctuations, the most suitable technologies remain flexible gas turbine systems and simple-cycle and gas-piston equipment under peak conditions.


thermal electric power plant load regulation efficiency grid-to-vehicle charging electric car storage battery 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    A. Akhil, G. Huff, A. Currier, B. Kann, D. Rastler, S. Chen, A. Cotter, D. Bradshaw, and W. Gauntlett (eds.), DOE/EPRI 2013 Electricity Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA, Sandia National Lab., Report SAND2013-5131.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    O. N. Favorskii, V. B. Alekseev, V. I. Zalkind, Yu. A. Zeigarnik, P. P. Ivanov, D. V. Marinichev, V. L. Nizovskii, and L. V. Nizovskii, “Experimentally studying TV3-117 gas-turbine unit characteristics at superheated water injection into a compressor,” Thermal Eng., 61(5) (2014).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. Grampsie, “Wet compression boost for power output and efficiency,” Gas Turbine World.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. Nair Nirmal-Kumar and Garimella Niraj, “Battery energy storage systems: Assessment for small-scale renewable energy integration,” Energy and Buildings, No. 42 (2010).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. J. Kazempour,M. P. Moghaddam, M. R. Haghifam, and G. R. Yousefi, “Electric energy storage systems in a market-based economy: Comparison of emerging and traditional technologies,” Renewable Energy, No. 34 (2009).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Zhuk, K. Denschikov, V. Fortov, A. Sheindlin, and W. Wilczynski, “Hybrid energy storage system based on supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries,” J. Appl. Electrochem., No. 44 (2014).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    W. Kempton and S. Letendre, “Electric vehicles as a new power source for electric utilities,” Transportation Res., No. 2 (1997).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. Tomi and W. Kempton, “Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support,” J. Power Sources, No. 168 (2007).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. B. Peterson, J. F. Whitacre, and J. Apt, “The economics of using plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery packs for grid storage,” J. Power Sources, No. 195 (2010).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Z. Zhuk, E. A. Buzoverov, and A. E. Sheindlin, “Distributed energy storage systems on the basis of electric vehicle fleets,” Thermal Eng., 62(1) (2015).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. Schoenung, Energy storage systems cost update. A study for DOE storage systems program, Sandia National Lab, Report SAND2011-2730 (2011).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Ereev and M. Patel, “Standardized cost estimation for new technologies (SCENT) — methodology and tools,” J. Business Chem., No. 9 (2012).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Investment decisions for baseload power plants, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Final Report 402/012910 (2010).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Updated capital cost estimates for utility scale electricity generating plants, US Energy Information Administration, DC 20585 (2013).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    STO 70238424.27.100.016–2009. Steam-Gas Equipment. Organization of Use and Technical Servicing. Standards and Requirements [in Russian], Izd. NP “Invel,” Moscow (2009).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    ISO 2977-3:2004. Gas Turbine — Procurement — Part 3: Design Requirements (2004).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    STO 70238424.27.040.016–2008. Gas-Turbine Equipment. Installation Conditions. Standards and Requirements [in Russian], Izd. NP “Invel,” Moscow (2008).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. Back, “Lifecycle cost knowledge will impact power plant investment decisions,” Wartsila Tech. J., No. 2 (2010).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    B. Battke, T. Schmidt, D. Grosspietsch, and V. Hoffmann, “A review and probabilistic model of lifecycle costs of stationary batteries in multiple applications,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Rev., No. 25 (2013).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. B. Peterson, J. F. Whitacre, and J. Apt, “The economics of using plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery packs for grid storage,” J. Power Sources, No. 195 (2010).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. Tomic and W. Kempton, “Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support,” J. Power Sources, No. 168 (2007).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    N. Takami, H. Imagaki, Y. Tatebayashi, H. Saruwatari, K. Honda, and S. Egusa, “High-power and long-life lithium-ion batteries using lithium titanium oxide anode for automotive and stationary power applications,” J. Power Sources, No. 244 (2013).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    D. B. Richardson, “Encouraging vehicle-to-grid (V2G) participation through premium tariff rates,” J. Power Sources, No. 243 (2013).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Z. Zhuk
    • 1
  • Yu. A. Zeigarnik
    • 1
  • E. A. Buzoverov
    • 1
  • A. E. Sheindlin
    • 1
  • Yu. N. Kucherov
    • 2
  1. 1.Joint Institute for High TemperaturesRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.JSC “System Operator of the United Power System,”MoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations