Human Ecology

, Volume 46, Issue 1, pp 65–77 | Cite as

Regional Nature Parks in Switzerland. Between top-Down and Bottom-Up Institution Building for Landscape Management

Article
  • 146 Downloads

Abstract

In 2007 Swiss Federal legislation introduced Regional Nature Parks (RNPs). In this paper I treat the landscape as an object of political-legal regulation and focus on the governance of its uses. I use the constitutionality framework to support our analysis. Constitutionality refers to a form of institution building that stresses bottom-up natural resource management initiatives. Through a detailed case study I show that the interests of landscape users are not equally well protected by law. The success of the new parks model depends on a subtle balance between local self-organization and top-down control. The interests of the weakest actors, i.e., landscape viewers, can be supported only through strong backing at higher levels of government.

Keywords

Constitutionality Landscape Regional Nature Park Resource governance First world political ecology Switzerland 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I wish to thank Jill Belsky for her helpful comments on an early draft of this manuscript. Anonymous reviewers of this manuscript also provided very useful insights.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Agrawal A. (2005). Environmentality: Technologies of government and the making of subjects, Duke University Press, Durham.Google Scholar
  2. Appleton J. (1996). The experience of landscape, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Bayart, J.-F. (2008). Comparing from below. Sociétés politiques comparées, No 1, 01/2008.Google Scholar
  4. Bean M. J. (2006). The endangered species act under threat. Bio Science 56(2): 98.Google Scholar
  5. Borrini-Feyerabend G., Pimbert M., Farvar M. T., Kothari A., and Renard Y. (2004). Sharing power: Learning-by-doing in co-management of natural resources throughout the world, IUCN, Gland.Google Scholar
  6. Chételat J., Kalbermatten M., Lannas K. S. M., Spiegelberger T., Wettstein J. B., Gillet F., Peringer A., and Buttler A. (2013). A contextual analysis of land-use and vegetation changes in two wooded pastures in the Swiss Jura Mountains. Ecology and Society 18(1): 39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cosgrove D. (1995). Habitable earth: Wilderness, empire, and race in America. In Rothenberg D. (ed.), Wild ideas, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, pp. 27–41.Google Scholar
  8. Cosgrove D. (1998). Social formation and symbolic landscape, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.Google Scholar
  9. Cosgrove D. (2003). Landscape and the European sense of sight – Eyeing nature. In Anderson K., Domosh M., Pile S., and Thrift N. (eds.), Handbook of cultural Geography, Sage, London, pp. 249–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Council of Europe (2000). European landscape Convention, Council of Europe, Strasbourg.Google Scholar
  11. Droz Y., Mieville-Ott V., Forney J., and Spichiger R. (2009). Anthropologie politique du paysage, Karthala, Paris.Google Scholar
  12. Egli, H.-R. (1991). Entwicklung der Siedlungsstruktur im Vallon de St-Imier seit 1800. In Geographische Gesellschaft Bern (ed.), Der Berner Jura (Volume 57), Bern, pp. 127–142.Google Scholar
  13. Flückiger A., Morand C.-A., and Tanquerel T. (2000). Évaluation du droit de recours des associations de protection de l’environnement, OFEFP, Berne.Google Scholar
  14. Foucault M. (1978). Sécurité, territoire, population. In Cours au Collège de France (1977–1978), Gallimard, Paris.Google Scholar
  15. Gerber J.-D. (2016). The managerial turn of municipal spatial planning in Switzerland. Toward land policy? Planning Theory & Practice 17(2): 192–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gerber J.-D., and Knoepfel P. (2008). The Swiss regional nature parks. Mountain Research and Development 28(2): 110–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gerber J.-D., Rodewald R., and Knoepfel P. (2007). The sustainable management of the landscape. Journal of alpine research 95(3): 64–74.Google Scholar
  18. Gerber J.-D., Knoepfel P., Nahrath S., and Varone F. (2009). Institutional resource regimes. Ecological Economics 68: 798–809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gerber J.-D., Nahrath S., Csikos P., and Knoepfel P. (2011). The role of Swiss civic corporations in land-use planning. Environment & Planning A 43: 185–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grove R. H. (1995). Green imperialism: Colonial expansion, Tropical Island Edens, and the origins of environmentalism, 1600–1860, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  21. Hale C. R. (2005). Neoliberal Multiculturalism. PoLAR 28(1): 10–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Haller T. (ed.) (2010). Disputing the floodplains, Brill, Leiden.Google Scholar
  23. Haller T. (2013). The contested floodplain, Lexington/Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham.Google Scholar
  24. Haller T., Acciaioli G., and Rist S. (2016). Constitutionality: Conditions for crafting local ownership of institution-building processes. Society & Natural Resources 29: 68–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hammer T. (2007). Protected areas and regional development. In Mose I. (ed.), Protected areas and regional development in Europe, Ashgate, Aldershot, pp. 21–36.Google Scholar
  26. Harvey D. (1982). The limits to capital, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Chicago.Google Scholar
  27. Hughes O. E. (2003). Public management and administration: An introduction, Palgrave Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Hunziker M., Felber P., Gehring K., Buchecker M., Bauer N., and Kienast F. (2008). Evaluation of landscape change by different social groups. Mountain Research and Development 28(2): 140–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. IUCN (1994). Guidelines for protected areas management categories, IUCN, Gland.Google Scholar
  30. Jessop B. (2002). Liberalism, neoliberalism, and urban governance. Antipode 34(3): 452–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Knoepfel P., Larrue C., Varone F., and Hill M. (2007). Public policy analysis, Policy Press, Bristol.Google Scholar
  32. Li T. M. (2007). The will to improve: Governmentality, development, and the practice of Politics, Duke University Press, Durham.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Linder W. (1994). Swiss Democracy, St. Martin’s Press, New York.Google Scholar
  34. McCarthy J. (2006). Neoliberalism and the Politics of alternatives. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 96(1): 84–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mitchell D. (2003). Dead labor and the political economy of landscape – California living, California dying. In Anderson K., Domosh M., Pile S., and Thrift N. (eds.), Handbook of cultural Geography, Sage, London, pp. 233–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mose I., and Weixlbaumer N. (2007). A new paradigm for protected areas in Europe? In Mose I. (ed.), Protected areas and regional development in Europe, Ashgate, Aldershot, pp. 3–19.Google Scholar
  37. Müller H. (2008). Freizeit und Tourismus, FIF-Verlag, Bern.Google Scholar
  38. Neumann R. P. (1995). Ways of seeing Africa. Ecumene 2: 149–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Neumann R. P. (1998). Imposing wilderness, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  40. North D. (1990). Institutions, institutional change and economic performance, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Osborne D., and Gaebler T. (1992). Reinventing government: How the entrepreneurial spirit is transforming the public sector, Plume, New York.Google Scholar
  42. RNP Chasseral (2012). Charte 2012–2021. Version dated 03/29/2012. RNP Chasseral, St-Imier.Google Scholar
  43. Roberts S. M., Jones J. P., and Fröhling O. (2005). NGOs and the globalization of managerialism: A research framework. World Development 33(11): 1845–1864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Scholz R., and Tietje O. (2002). Embedded case study methods: Integrating quantitative and qualitative knowledge, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Swiss Federal Council (2005a). Botschaft zur Teilrevision des Natur- und Heimatschutzgesetzes 05.027, dated 02/23/2005, Bern.Google Scholar
  46. Swiss Federal Council (2005b). Botschaft über die Neue Regionalpolitik 05.080 (NRP), dated 11/16/2005, Bern.Google Scholar
  47. Turner J. (1979). The Politics of landscape: Rural scenery and Society in English Poetry, 1630–1660, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  48. UNESCO (1996). Biosphere reserves: The Seville strategy and the statutory framework of the world network, UNESCO, Paris.Google Scholar
  49. von Benda-Beckmann K. (1981). Forum shopping and shopping forums. Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law 13(19): 117–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Weber M. (1968). Economy and society, Bedminster Press, New York.Google Scholar
  51. Yin R. K. (2009). Case study research, Sage, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  52. Zimmermann E. W. (1951). World resources and industries, Harper and Brothers, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of GeographyUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  2. 2.Center for Regional Economic Development (CRED)University of BernBernSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations