White-tailed Deer Management Strategies and Domestication Processes
Today, people in the U.S. commonly engage in mutual relationships with white-tailed deer (WTD) in manners consistent with those that ultimately resulted in the domestication of animals in the past. Using a wide range of media depicting perspectives of sport hunters, biologists, ecologists, and game managers this paper explores: 1) the influence of anthropogenic environments on WTD behavior, 2) ‘game’ management and the ability to create valued demographics, and 3) the selection for increased antler size in farmed WTD. This study demonstrates that in order to gain a more accurate understanding of domestication, analyses should focus on the evolution of mutualisms between people and animals. Insights gleamed from this analysis also contribute toward our archaeological understanding of prehistoric animal domestication.
KeywordsAnimal domestication White-tailed deer Wildlife management Niche construction Sport hunting Archaeology
I would like to thank Melinda Zeder, Dolores Piperno and two anonymous readers for their comments on earlier drafts. Thanks also to Kerin Schwartz and R. Muti for their help in making this paper possible.
- Adams, K. (2009). Antlered Buck Management. Quality Whitetails: The Journal of the Quality Deer Management Association 16(2): 10–12.Google Scholar
- Andrews, L., DeYoung, R. W., Lyon, L. J., Williams, E. S., Williamson, S. J., and Wolfe, G. J. (2002). Biological and Social Issues Related to Confinement of Wild Ungulates. The Wildlife Society, Bethesda.Google Scholar
- B&C (2009). The Boone and Crockett Club, http://www.boone-crockett.org/bgrecords/WorldRecords.asp?area=bgrecords.
- Bartylla, S. (2009). Don’t Forget the Native Forage: http://www.northamericanwhitetail.com/deermanagement/dm_0903deerfactory/index.html.
- Bokonyi, S. (1989). Definitions of domestication. In Clutton-Brock, J. (ed.), The Walking the Larder: Patterns of Domestication, Pastoralism, and Predation. Unwin, Cambridge, pp. 1–4.Google Scholar
- Burch, M. (2009). Food plot implements for 2009. In North American Whitetail. Spring Issue, pp. 24–27.Google Scholar
- Cabela’s 2009 Cabela’s: World’s Foremost Outfitter: http://www.cabelas.com/.
- Clutton-Brock, J. (1994). The unnatural world: behavioral aspects of humans and animals in the process of domestication. In Manning, A., and Serpell, J. A. (eds.), Animals and Human Society: Changing Perspectives. Routledge, London, pp. 23–35.Google Scholar
- Darwin, C. (1859). The Origin of Species. Mentor, New York.Google Scholar
- Darwin, C. (1868). The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication, Volume 1 and 2. John Murray, London.Google Scholar
- Demarais, S. (1998). Managing for Antler Production: Understanding the Age, Nutrition Genetic Interaction. Proceedings of the Role of Genetics in White-tailed Deer Management Symposium 1: 33–36.Google Scholar
- Demarais, S., Miller, K. V., and Jacobson, H. A. (2000). White-tailed deer. In Demarais, S., and Krausman, P. R. (eds.), Ecology and Management of Large Mammals in North America. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, pp. 601–628.Google Scholar
- Ditchkoff, S. S., Lochmiller, R. L., Masters, R. E., Starry, W. R., and Leslie Jr., D. M. (2001). Does Fluctuating Asymmetry of Antlers in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) Follow Patterns Predicted for Sexually Selected Traits? Proceedings of the Royal Society London 268: 891–898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dobie, D. (2009). Growing Pains: Unexpected Woes in Management, Part 2. In Petersens Hunting, pp. 34–35, Vol. 37: February/March.Google Scholar
- Driscoll, C. A., Macdonald, D. W. and O’Brien, S. J. (2009). From Wild Animals to Domestic Pets, an Evolutionary View of Domestication. Science 106:9971–9978.Google Scholar
- Ducos, P. (1978). “Domestication” defined and methodological approaches to its recognition in faunal assemblages. In Meadow, R. H., and Zeder, M. A. (eds.), Approaches to Faunal Analysis in the Middle East. Peabody Museum Bulletin 2. Harvard University, Cambridge.Google Scholar
- FFP. (2009). Farming for Wildlife: The Journal of Wildlife Stewardship: http://www.farmingforwildlife.com/.
- Hale, E. B. (1969). Domestication and the Evolution of Behaviour. Bailliere, Tindall and Cassell, London.Google Scholar
- Harris, D. R. (1996). The origins and spread of agriculture and pastoralism in Eurasia: an overview. In Harris, D. R. (ed.), The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washingtion, D.C., pp. 552–574.Google Scholar
- Harris, R. B., Wall, W. A., and Allendorf, F. W. (2002). Genetic Consequences of Hunting: What Do We Know and What Should We Do? Wildlife Society Bulletin 30(2): 634–643.Google Scholar
- Hemmer, H. (1990). Domestication: The Decline of Environmental Appreciation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
- Hesse, B. (1978). Evidence for Husbandry from the Early Neolithic Site of Ganj Dareh in Western Iran. University Microfilm International, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
- Hudson, R. J. (1989). History and technology. In Hudson, R. J., Drew, K. R., and Baskin, L. M. (eds.), Wildlife Production System: Economic Utilisation of Wild Ungulates. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 11–27.Google Scholar
- Hudson, R. J., Drew, K. R., and Baskin, L. M. (eds.) (1989). Wildlife Production Systems: Economic Utilisation of Wild Ungulates, Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Jones, M., and Brown, T. (2007). Selection, cultivation and reproductive isolation: a reconsideration of the morphological and molecular signals of domestication. In Denham, T., Iriarte, J., and Vrydaghs, L. (eds.), Rethinking Agriculture: Archaeological and Ethnoarchaeological Perspecitves. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, pp. 36–49.Google Scholar
- Kahn, R. (1993). Elk Ranching in Colorado-Problems and Solutions. In Game Ranching and Elk, Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation Wildlife Professionals Symposium, Reno, Nevada, 1993, pp. 14–17.Google Scholar
- Kellert, S. R., and Smith, C. P. (2000). Human values toward large mammals. In Demarais, S., and Krausman, P. R. (eds.), Ecology and Management of Large Mammals in North America. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, pp. 38–63.Google Scholar
- Kroll, J. C. (1991). A Practical Guide to Producing and Harvesting White-Tailed Deer. Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches.Google Scholar
- Leopold, A. (1933). Game Management. Charles Schribner’s Sons, New York.Google Scholar
- McGowan, B. J. (2004). Food plots for white-tailed deer: Purdue University Forestry and Natural Resources.Google Scholar
- Miller, K. V., and Wentworth, J. M. (2000). Carrying capacity. In Demarais, S., and Krausman, P. R. (eds.), Ecology and Management of Large Mammals in North America. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, pp. 140–155.Google Scholar
- Nelson, R. (1997). Heart and Blood: Living with Deer in America. Knopf A.A., New York.Google Scholar
- Odling-Smee, F. J., Laland, K. N., and Feldman, M. W. (2003). Niche Construction: The Neglected Process in Evolution. Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
- P&Y (2009). The Pope & Young Club, http://www.pope-young.org/world-records_main.asp.
- QDMA. (2009). Quality Deer Management Association: http://www.qdma.com/qdm/.
- Rindos, D. (1984). The Origins of Agriculture: An Evolutionary Perspective. Academic, Orlando.Google Scholar
- Schultz, S. L., and Johnson, M. K. (1992). Antler Development of Captive Louisiana White-Tailed Bucks. Proceedings of the 46th Annual Conference of South Eastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, 25–28 October Corpus Christi, Texas, 1992. Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies.Google Scholar
- Smith, S. E., Read, D. J., and Laker Harley, J. (1997). Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. Academic, New York.Google Scholar
- Stedman, S. W. (1998). Where is the road taking us? One manager’s perspective on culling. In Cearley, K. A., and Rollins, D. (eds.), The Role of Genetics in White-Tailed Deer Manegement. Texas A&M University, College Station, pp. 115–117.Google Scholar
- Stiner, M. C. (1991). Human Predators and Prey Mortality. West View Press, Boulder.Google Scholar
- Terrell, J. E., Hart, J. P., Barut, S., Cellinese, N., Curet, A., Tim Denham, M. K., Chapurukha, K. L., Oka, R., Palka, J., Pohl, M. E. D., Pope, K. O., Williams, P. R., Haines, H., and Staller, J. E. (2003). Domesticated Landscapes: The Subsistence Ecology of Plant and Animal Domestication. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 10(4): 323–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ullrey, D. E. (1982). Nutrition and antler development in white-tailed deer. In Brown, R. D. (ed.), Antler Development in Ceridae. Kingsville, Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research Institute, Texas.Google Scholar
- VanGelder, R. G. (1979). Comments on Request for Declaration Modifying Article I, so as to Exclude Names Proposed for Domestic Animals from Zoological Nomenclature. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 36: 5–9.Google Scholar
- Von Kerckerinck, J. (1987). Deer Farming in North America: The Conquest of a New Frontier. Phanter Press, Rhinebeck.Google Scholar
- Vrydaghs, L., and Denham, T. (2007). Rethinking agriculture: introductory thoughts. In Denham, T., Iriarte, J., and Vrydaghs, L. (eds.), Rethinking Agriculture: Archaeological and Ethnoarchaeological Perspectives. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, pp. 1–15.Google Scholar
- Waller, D. M., and Alverson, W. S. (1997). The White-Tailed Deer: A Keystone Herbivore. Journal of Wildlife Management 25: 217–226.Google Scholar
- Warren, R. J. (1991). Ecological Justifications for Controlling Deer Populations in Eastern National Parks. Transactions of the North American Wildlife Natural Resources Conference 56: 56–66.Google Scholar
- Wright, S. (1968). Evolution and the Genetics of Populations, Vol. 1. Genetics and Biometric Foundations. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
- WW. (2009). Wilderness Whitetails: www.wildernesswhitetails.com.
- Yerex, D., and Spiers, I. (1990). Modern Deer Farm Management. GP Books, Wellington.Google Scholar
- Zeder, M. A. (2005). A view from Zagros: new perspectives on livestock domestication in the fertile crescent. In Vigne, J. D., Peters, J., and Helmer, D. (eds.), First Steps in Animal Domestication: New Zooarchaeological Perspecitves. Oxbow, Oxbow, pp. 125–146.Google Scholar
- Zeder, M. A. (2011). Pathways to animal domestication. In Gepts, P. (ed.), Biodiversity in Agriculture: Domestication, Evolution and Sustainability, In Press. Cambridge University Press, London.Google Scholar