Clinical significance of nutritional status in patients with chronic heart failure—a systematic review

Abstract

Chronic heart failure (CHF) and nutritional disorders are recognized as major challenges for contemporary medicine. This study aims to estimate the role of nutritional disorders as risk factors for CHF development and prognostic factors for CHF patients and the outcome of nutritional intervention in CHF. Full-text English articles published between January 2013 and February 2019 available in the PubMed and Scopus databases were considered. Seventy-five prospective, retrospective, and cross-sectional studies as well as meta-analyses on patients with CHF, reporting correlation of their nutritional status with the risk and prognosis of CHF and the outcome of nutritional interventions in CHF were all included. Higher BMI increases the risk of CHF by 15–70%, especially when associated with severe, long-lasting and abdominal obesity. Overweight and obesity are associated with the reduction of mortality in CHF by 24–59% and 15–65%, respectively, and do not affect the outcome of invasive CHF treatment. Malnutrition increases the risk of mortality (by 2- to 10-fold) and the risk of hospitalization (by 1.2- to 1.7-fold). Favorable outcome of nutritional support in CHF patients was reported in a few studies. Nutritional disorders are prevalent in patients with CHF and play a significant role in the incidence, course, and prognosis of the disease. The existence of an “obesity paradox” in patients with CHF was confirmed. Further studies on the effect of nutritional support and body weight reduction in patients with CHF are necessary.

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Wawrzeńczyk, A., Anaszewicz, M., Wawrzeńczyk, A. et al. Clinical significance of nutritional status in patients with chronic heart failure—a systematic review. Heart Fail Rev 24, 671–700 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10741-019-09793-2

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Keywords

  • Chronic heart failure
  • Malnutrition
  • Nutritional status
  • Obesity
  • Prognosis
  • Intervention