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Heart Failure Reviews

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 449–473 | Cite as

Angiogenic therapy for cardiac repair based on protein delivery systems

  • F. R. Formiga
  • E. Tamayo
  • T. Simón-Yarza
  • B. Pelacho
  • F. Prósper
  • M. J. Blanco-Prieto
Article

Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases remain the first cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed countries and are a major problem not only in the western nations but also in developing countries. Current standard approaches for treating patients with ischemic heart disease include angioplasty or bypass surgery. However, a large number of patients cannot be treated using these procedures. Novel curative approaches under investigation include gene, cell, and protein therapy. This review focuses on potential growth factors for cardiac repair. The role of these growth factors in the angiogenic process and the therapeutic implications are reviewed. Issues including aspects of growth factor delivery are presented in relation to protein stability, dosage, routes, and safety matters. Finally, different approaches for controlled growth factor delivery are discussed as novel protein delivery platforms for cardiac regeneration.

Keywords

Cardiovascular diseases Cardiac repair Growth factor Angiogenesis Protein delivery 

Abbreviations

Ang

Angiopoietin

C-GSF

Colony granulocyte stimulating factor

CHF

Chronic heart failure

cMLCK

Cardiac-specific myosin light-chain kinase

CVD

Cardiovascular diseases

EC

Endothelial cell

ECM

Extracellular matrix

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

EPC

Endothelial progenitor cell

EPO

Erythropoietin

ErbB

NRG tyrosine kinase receptor

FDA

US Food and drug administration

FGF

Fibroblast growth factor

FGF-1

Acidic fibroblast growth factor

FGF-2

Basic fibroblast growth factor

FGFR

FGF tyrosine kinase receptor

G-CSF

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

GF

Growth factor

HGF

Hepatocyte growth factor

HIF-1α

Hypoxia inducible factor-1α

HSPGs

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans

IHD

Ischemic heart disease

LAD

Left anterior descending coronary artery

LVEF

Left ventricle ejection fraction

MCP-1

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

MMPs

Matrix metalloproteinases

NO

Nitric oxide

NRG

Neuregulin

PDGF

Platelet-derived growth factor

PDGFR

PDGF tyrosine kinase receptor

PEG

Poly(ethylene glycol)

PEO

Poly(ethylene oxide)

Shh

Sonic hedgehog

TGF-β

Transforming growth factor-β

Tie

Ang tyrosine kinase receptor

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-α

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

VEGFR

VEGF tyrosine kinase receptor

VSMC

Vascular smooth muscle cell

WHF

World Heart Federation

WHO

World Health Organization

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported in part by Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII PI050168, PI10/01621, CP09/00333 and ISCIII-RETIC RD06/0014), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (PLE2009-0116 and PSE SINBAD, PSS 0100000-2008-1), Gobierno de Navarra (Departamento de Educación), Comunidad de Trabajo de los Pirineos (CTP), European Union Framework Project VII (INELPY), Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional para el Desarrollo (AECID), Caja de Ahorros de Navarra (Programa Tu Eliges: Tu Decides) and the “UTE project CIMA”.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. R. Formiga
    • 1
  • E. Tamayo
    • 1
  • T. Simón-Yarza
    • 1
  • B. Pelacho
    • 2
  • F. Prósper
    • 2
  • M. J. Blanco-Prieto
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, School of PharmacyUniversity of NavarraPamplonaSpain
  2. 2.Hematology Service and Area of Cell Therapy, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Foundation for Applied Medical ResearchUniversity of NavarraPamplonaSpain

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