Three-dimensional reconstructed eccrine sweat glands with vascularization and cholinergic and adrenergic innervation
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Functional integrity of the regenerated tissues requires not only structural integrity but also vascularization and innervation. We previously demonstrated that the three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed eccrine sweat glands had similar structures as those of the native ones did, but whether the 3D reconstructed glands possessing vascularization and innervation was still unknown. In the study, Matrigel-embedded eccrine sweat gland cells were implanted under the inguinal skin. Ten weeks post-implantation, the vascularization, and innervation in the 10-week reconstructed eccrine sweat glands and native human eccrine sweat glands were detected by immunofluorescence staining. The results showed that the fluorescent signals of general neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5, adrenergic nerve fiber marker tyrosine hydroxylase, and cholinergic nerve fiber markers acetylcholinesterase and vasoactive intestinal peptide embraced the 3D reconstructed glands in circular patterns, as the signals appeared in native eccrine sweat glands. There were many CD31- and von Willebrand factor-positive vessels growing into the plugs. We demonstrated that the 3D reconstructed eccrine sweat glands were nourished by blood vessels, and we for the first time demonstrated that the engineering sweat glands were innervated by both cholinergic and adrenergic fibers. In conclusion, the 3D reconstructed eccrine sweat glands may have functions as the native ones do.
KeywordsEccrine sweat gland Three-dimensional reconstruction Matrigel Innervation Vascularization
Defined keratinocyte serum-free medium
- PGP 9.5
Protein gene product 9.5
Shantou University Medical College
Tyramide signal amplification
Vasoactive intestinal peptide
Von Willebrand factor
The manuscript was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81772102, 81471882).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
We declare we have no competing financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations.
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